Agriculture has been the chief source of income and main occupation for the state with 60% of population engaged in agriculture and related activities. Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. Other important crops are sugarcane, cotton, mango, tobacco, Maize, pulses etc. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Tungabhadra flow through the state, providing irrigation. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.

Andhra Pradesh was among the very few states in the country which went in for the Green Revolution in rice cultivation in the 1970s. Average per capita agricultural income in the state was ₹54.599 billion (US$810 million) at constant prices (2012–13).