Anini is the headquarters of the Dibang Valley district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. Anini was also the district headquarters of the undivided Dibang Valley district. It is a small underdeveloped town, mainly because of its remoteness. Yet, it still has basic road and air links to the rest of India. The Idu Mishmi tribal people constitute a majority here. The town is fully dependent on the nearest major settlement, Roing, which is in the Lower Dibang Valley District, for most commercial needs.

Anini’s name may have come from Inini or Innini. Historical maps of Arunachal Pradesh from times before the Lower Dibang Valley district was carved out of the Dibang Valley District in 2001,and before Roing was established, indicate the capital of the Dibang Valley District being “Inini”.That name may have come from the Idu word “inni”. Inni is the Idu Mishmi’s supreme deity or god.

Like the history of Arunachal Pradesh, Anini’s history is cloudy. The native Idu Mishmis and other tribes were said to have migrated from ancient Tibet back in the 1st or 1st millennium BC. They have been believed to have stopped in Lhoyu. Lhoyu became under Tibetan control around the 7th century.Although inhabited by Idu Mishmis in all that time, it took until the times of NEFA and the British Raj for Anini to be officially established. Anini’s importance grew during World War II, when supplies and troops needed to be sent to China through the Ledo Road in Assam. In 1947, Anini became a part of the Union of India like the rest of India. At this point the Republic of China was free to claim most of Arunachal, making it and Aksai Chin under dispute. The People’s Republic of China emerged in 1949, and once the British left in 1950, Arunachal and Aksai Chinwere under dispute. Since then, they remained under dispute. In June 1980, the Dibang Valley district was finally carved out of the Lohit District, and Anini was pronounced capital.Since then, Anini has been the only district headquarters without proper road links to the rest of India.

Most of Annini is located on a miniature plateau between two tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the Dri Streams and Mathun rivers. The town has a subdistrict of its own: Anini Circle.As of 2001, there were 4,069 people living in Anini Circle.Its location just south of the Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary makes Anini the northernmost district headquarters in Northeast India.

Anini’s climate varies by elevation. In the lower elevations, the climate is humid subtropical. In the climate around the plateau, it is temperate. Anini is within the monsoon zoneand receives both the southwest monsoon of South Asia and the northeast monsoon of East Asia. During the May–October time, Anini receives 80% of its precipitation. Snowfall is common in the winter, and can become quite heavy (6m – 10m) in the mountains.

Anini has a population of 2,264 living in 613 households as of 2001. Of those 2,264 are 1,331 males and 933 females. Due to its humble population, Anini is not yet a census town, needing about 3,000 more people to become one.Anini may become one sooner than anticipated due to the Dibang Valley district’s high population growth rate of 33.61 permille. (as of 2001) Idu Mishmis, also known as Yidu Lhoba in China, are the main inhabitants of the district.