Arunachal Pradesh,state of India. It constitutes a mountainous area in the extreme northeastern part of the country and is bordered by the kingdom of Bhutan to the west, the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Myanmar (Burma) and the Indian state of Nagaland to the south and southeast, and the Indian state of Assam to the south and southwest. The capital is Itanagar.Arunachal Pradesh, meaning “Land of the Rising Sun,” long has been a recognized region of the Indian subcontinent, receiving mention in such ancient Hindu literature as the Kalika-purana and the epic poems Mahabharata and Ramayana.
In 1826, the British exercised their control in Assam after the treaty of Yandaboo concluded on 24th February 1826. Before 1962, Arunachal was popularly called North Eastern Frontier Agency and was constitutionally a part of Assam. It was administered by the Ministry of External Affairs until 1965 and subsequently by the Ministry of Home Affairs through the Governor of Assam. In 1972, it was constituted as a Union Territory and renamed Arunachal Pradesh. On 20th February in 1987, it became the 24th state of the Indian Union.
Arunachal Pradesh is inhabited by people of tribal origin. These groups had distinct culture. In the16th century the Ahom Kings influenced the region. The population were of Tibeto-Burmese linguistic origin. The tribe consisted of the Daflas, Bangnis, the Monpas and they were influenced by Buddhist ideals. The Miri along with the Daflas and Tagin lived in the hills. The Apatanis were believed to be more advanced. They were agriculturists. Besides this the Abor who called themselves as Adi lived in the valley of Arunachal Pradesh. Besides them the Membas, Ramos and Boris formed minor groups. The Mishmis exists as Idus, Taraons, and Kamans. They excelled in handicrafts. Today tourism forms an important source of revenue for the state economy.
The gayal (Bos frontalis), also known as mithun, is a large semi-domesticated bovine distributed in Northeast India, Bangladesh, northern Burma and in Yunnan, China.
The great hornbill (Buceros bicornis) also known as the great Indian hornbill or great pied hornbill, is one of the larger members of the hornbill family. It is found in South and Southeast Asia. Its impressive size and colour have made it important in many tribal cultures and rituals. The great hornbill is long-lived, living for nearly 50 years in captivity. It is predominantly frugivorous, but is an opportunist and will prey on small mammals, reptiles and birds.
Rhynchostylis retusa (also called Foxtail Orchid) is an exotic blooming orchid, belonging to the Vanda alliance. The inflorescence is a pendant raceme, consisting of more than 100 pink-spotted white flowers. The plant has a short, stout, creeping stem carrying up to 12, curved, fleshy, deeply channeled, keeled, retuse apically leaves and blooms on an axillary pendant to 60 cm (24 in) long, racemose, densely flowered, cylindrical inflorescence that occurs in the winter and early spring.
Dipterocarpus macrocarpus is a common medium hardwood tree in South-East Asia and India. It is the state tree of Arunachal Pradesh and Assam, India. In Assam it is locally known as Hollong tree.
Itanagar Airport, a Greenfield project serving Itanagar is being planned at Holongi at a cost of Rs. 6.50 billion.The existing state owned Daporijo Airport, Ziro Airport, Along Airport, Tezu Airport and Pasighat Airport are small and are not in operation. The government has proposed to operationalise these airports.Before the state was connected by roads, these airstrips were originally used for the transportation of food.Arunachal Pradesh has two highways: the 336 km National Highway 52, completed in 1998, which connects Jonai with Dirak,and another highway, which connects Tezpur in Assam with Tawang.As of 2007, every village has been connected by road thanks to funding provided by the central government. Every small town has its own bus station and daily bus services are available. All places are connected to Assam, which has increased trading activity. An additional National Highway is being constructed following the Stillwell Ledo Road, which connects Ledo in Assam to Jairampur in Arunachal. Work on the ambitious 2,400 km two-lane Trans-Arunachal Highway Project announced by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 31 January 2008 on his maiden visit to the state, was scheduled to be completed by 2015–16 but now due to political and social reasons it may take another decade.
In 2014, two major highways were proposed to be built in the state: East-West Industrial Corridor Highway, Arunachal Pradesh in the lower foot hills of the state and 2,000-kilometre-long (1,200 mi) Mago-Thingbu to Vijaynagar Arunachal Pradesh Frontier Highway along the McMahon Line,alignment map of which can be seen here and here.Arunachal Pradesh got its first railway line in late 2013 with the opening of the new link line from Harmuti on the main Rangpara North-Murkongselak railway line to Naharlagun in Arunachal Pradesh. The construction of the 33 kilometre 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge railway line was completed in 2012, and the link became operational after the gauge conversion of the main line under Project Unigauge. The state capital Itanagar was added to the Indian railway map on 12 April 2014 via the newly built 20 kilometre Harmuti-Naharlagun railway line, when a train from Dekargaon in Assam reached Naharlagun railway station, 10 kilometres from the centre of Itanagar, a total distance of 181 kilometres.On 20 February 2015 the first through train was run from New Delhi to Naharlagun, flagged off from the capital by the Indian prime minister, Narendra Modi. India plans to eventually extend the railway to Tawang, near the border with China.
The dishes typical of the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh vary within the region, including according to tribal influence (with the influence of Apatanis, Chuki, adi and Nishi.Apong or rice beer made from fermented rice or millet is a popular beverage in Arunachal Pradesh, as an alcoholic drink.There are different varieties of rice beer with different flavours. Thukpa is another traditional dish common among “Monpa” a tribe of Arunachal.The staple food is rice along with fish, meat and many green vegetables. Different varieties of rice are available. Lettuce is the most common and preferred vegetable of all, prepared by boiling it with ginger, coriander and green chillies. Boiled rice cakes wrapped in leaves is a famous snack.The momos are also popular. Dishes in eastern districts like Tirap and Changlang have some different method in their way of food preparation.
Dance is not only meant for recreation but it also helps to boost festive spirit amongst people. Here people usually prefer group dances, in which both men and women coordinate their steps. Igo dance of the Mishmi priests, War dance of the Adis, Noctes and Wanchos; traditional dances of the Buddhists are some the popular dances, in which women are not allowed to participate. Aji Lamu (Monpa), Roppi (Nishing), Buiya (Nishing), Hurkani (Apatani), Popir (Adi), Pasi Kongki (Adi), Chalo (Nocte), Ponung (Adi), and Rekham Pada (Nishing) are some of the famous folk dances from Arunachal Pradesh.
Art & Craft
Most of the tribal groups in the state are recognized for their own artistic craftsmanship. The Buddhist tribe specializes in making amazing masks. In fact, silverwares and beautifully painted wooden vessels are also famous from this community. Carpet making is also practiced by the Monpas; these carpets are known for their exotic designs. The central part of the state has got skilled craftsmen of cane and bamboo; their products include a variety of hats, baskets, cane vessels, cane belts, bamboo mugs, and ornaments. The eastern part is celebrated for its wooden carvings, and here you can get exquisitely carved cups, dishes, fruit bowls, etc. Other crafts known from the state are paper makings, smithy work, carpentry, pottery, weaving, and ivory work.
Music plays an important part in the festivities, whether it’s of marriage or festival, in Arunachal Pradesh. Here songs’ themes are based on fables related to creatures and animals. The folk songs of Pailibos are correlated to their folk history, mythology and their historical accounts. Ja-Jin-Ja is a special song that is sung on occasions of feasts and merriment, like marriages and social gatherings. Baryi is another song in which the history, religious lore and mythology is narrated. Music is often accompanied by musical instruments, like Drums and Cymbals.