- > Blackbuck, Andhra Pradesh
- > Gayal, Arunachal Pradesh
- > One-horned rhino, Assam
- > Gaur, Bihar
- > Wild buffalo, Chattisgarh
- > Asiatic lion, Gujarat
- > Snow leopard, Himachal Pradesh
- > Indian elephant, Jharkhand
- > Indian giant squirrel, Maharashtra
- > Hoolock gibbon, Mizoram
- > Red panda, Sikkim
- > Nilgiri tahr, Tamil Nadu
- > Spotted deer, Telangana
- > Phayre’s langur, Tripura
- > Fishing cat, West Bengal
The other name for the Asiatic lion is Indian Lion. The species of this lion is extensively found in the state of Gujarat in India. IUCN listed them among the list of most imperiled species. The number of the lion constantly augmented in Gir Forest National Park almost multiplying it to double the existing number of 180 in the year 1974 to a count of 411. Out of the 411 lions 97 are the male adults, 162 are female adults while 75 are the sub-adults and cubs are 77 in number as recorded in the year April 2010.
The first description about the Asiatic lion was given by the zoologist Meyer of Austria. It belongs to the family of the big cats. The other species that belong to this family are Bengal tiger, snow leopard, clouded leopard and Indian leopard. They existed at few other places like Persia, Baluchistan, Mesopotamia, Sind in west to east of Bengal, northern part including Rampur and Rohilkund to the southern including Nerbudda. There are much difference between the Asiatic lion and the African Lion one of them being that the African Lion has bigger tail cluster and the other difference is that the African Lion have more tresses as compared to Asiatic Lion.
The most prominent study about the Asiatic lions revealed that they have multi layered pleats of skin around their belly as compared to the African Lions. African Lions are larger in size compared with the Asiatic Lion. The weights of the male lions vary from 160 kg to 190 kg and the weight of female lion varies from 110 kg to 120 kg. The average height of Asiatic Lion is 3.5 ft while the length of the Asiatic male lion goes to 2.92 meters that include the tail too.
The color of the fur on the body of the lion varies from ruddy-tawny to other colors like deeply marked black, sandy or shades of grey while at times they reflect a silver color effect under effect of lights. There are very less tresses on the head of a male lion that makes their ears easily evident. The tresses can be seen less on the cheeks and the throat that is only 4 inch long. Almost major number of Asiatic lion have the infra orbital hollow while the African Lions have the hollow on each side their skull. The pinnacles of these species have developed muscularly. The length of the skull in a male adult lion is from 330 mm to 340 mm while in the female adult lion it is 292 mm to 302 mm.
The only habitat for the Asiatic lion is in the western Gujarat in the Gir National park and sanctuary. In the year 1965 1412.1 sq. km of area was announced as the sanctuary to preserve the diminishing Asiatic Lion. With the passing years a land of size 258.71 sq. km was declared as the national park that did not allowed any kind of human interference. The only activity allowed around the national park for allowing the Maldharis to graze their animals.
The count of the Asiatic lion grew to 411 as per the 2010 reports. The habitat of the species is majorly in the Gir and Girnar that are in the state of Gujarat. The type of forest that this area sees is the dry deciduous and thorny and the savanna that display diversified flora and fauna. The five major areas that are considered as favorable for the preservance of the Asiatic Lion are Gir sanctuary, Gir National Park, Mitiyala Sanctuary, Pania Sanctuary and Girnar Sanctuary. The Gir conservation includes Gir sanctuary, Gir National Park and Pania sanctuary that spread over an area of 1452 sq. km while the remaining two sanctuaries Mitiyala and Girnar helps as the protectors for the Gir conservation Area. A new sanctuary is in process of establishment to the close area named as Barda forest to help in conserving and as a substitution for the Asiatic lions of Gir forest.
The records of 2010 declares that there were 105 count of lions that includes 35 males and females respectively, 19 sub-species and 16 cubs that were not the part of Gir forest.
The Asiatic lions live with the supremacy. The Gir conservation has only two female adult species. The Asiatic lions are very loyal to their female lion partners when it comes to mating as compared to the male lions of African type who wander in the various female lion groups. The male Gir lions are less social since they receive less number of species as their prey.