Azamgarh district is one of the three districts of Azamgarh Division in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

The district is named after its headquarters town, Azamgarh. Azam, son of Vikramajit, founded the town in 1665. Vikramajit a descendant of Gautam Rajputs of Mehnagar in pargana Nizamabad had embraced the faith of Islam. He had two sons, namely, Azam and Azmat.It is also known as land of the sage Durvasa whose ashram was located in Phulpur sub-district, near the confluence of Tons and Majhuee river, 6 kilometres (4 mi) north from the Phulpur sub-district headquarters.

Towards the end of the 16th century, a Gautam Rajput from Azamgarh district was assimilated into the Mughal court at Delhi, where he had gone in search of greater influence. His mission was a success, with the royal court eventually awarding him 22 parganas in the Azamgarh region that marked the establishment of a family line which culminated in his descendants becoming rajas of the area. This was a typical route whereby relatively obscure lineages rose to prominence.

Azamgarh district has an area of 4,054 square kilometres (1,565 sq mi). The district lies between the Ganges and the Ghagahara.Azamgarh district is surrounded by the districts of Mau in the east, Gorakhpur in the north, Ghazipur in the south-east, Jaunpur in the south-west, Sultanpur in the west and Ambedkar Nagar in the north-west.Azamgarh district is further divided into 7 sub-districts, and 22 development blocks. There are 4,106 villages (3,792 inhabited and 314 uninhabited) in the district.

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Azamgarh one of the country’s 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).It is one of the 34 districts in Uttar Pradesh currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).

According to the 2011 census Azamgarh district has a population of 4,613,913, This gives it a ranking of 30th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 1,139 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,950/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 17.11%.Azamgarh has a sex ratio of 1019 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 72.69%.

Azamgarh district’s total population was 3,939,916 as per 2001 census with population density of 972/km². The population consists of 393,401 urban and 4,220,512 rural; 2,137,805 females and 2,082,707 males. The literacy rate is 70.93%.

Vernaculars spoken in Azamgarh include Hindi, Avadhi, Urdu, English, and Bhojpuri.