Baramula

Baramulla district is one of the 22 districts in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Baramulla city is the administrative headquarters of this district. The district covered an area of 4190 km² in 2001 but it was reduced to 3,353 km² at the time of 2011 census.

The name Baramulla, meaning “Boar’s Molar Place,”is derived from two Sanskrit words Varaha (Boar) and Mula. According to Hindu teaching, the Kashmir Valley was once a lake called “Satisaras,” the lake of Parvati. The ancient Hindu texts state that the lake was occupied by a demon, Jalodbhava, until Lord Vishnu, assumed the form of a boar and struck the mountain with his molar at Baramulla (ancient Varahamula) boring an opening in it for the water to flow out.

The city of Baramulla, from which the district derives its name, was founded by Raja Bhimsina in 2306 BCE.

A number of prominent visitors have travelled to Baramulla. These include the famous Chinese visitor Heiun T’Sang and the British historian, Moorcraft. Mughal emperors had special fascination for Baramulla. Being the gateway of the Kashmir Valley, Baramulla was a halting station for them during their visits to the valley. Jahangir also stayed at Baramulla during his visit to Kashmir in 1620 CE.

From the very beginning, Baramulla has enjoyed religious importance. The construction of Hindu Teerth and Buddhist Vihars made the city scared to Hindus as well as Buddhists. In the 15th century, the place became important to Muslims also, as the famous Muslim saint, Syed Janbaz Wali, who visited the valley along with his companions in 1421 CE, chose Baramulla as the centre of his mission and was buried here after death. His shrine attracts pilgrims from all over the Valley. In 1894, the sixth Sikh Guru Shri Hargobind visited the city. Baramulla thus became an abode of Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists and Sikhs living in harmony and contributing to a rich composite culture.

Roads have been improved and road network has grown considerably in Baramulla town since 1947. New schools and colleges have started and better facilities for education have been created. More bridges on Jhelum river have been constructed or planned to connect the old town on the north bank of the river with the new town on the south bank. Decongestion of the old town has been attempted by moving some residents to houses in the new town.

The most recent development has been creation of railway connectivity with Srinagar, Anantnag and Qazigund and the planned connectivity with Banihal and Jammu.

Roads have been improved and road network has grown considerably in Baramulla town since 1947. New schools and colleges have started and better facilities for education have been created. More bridges on Jhelum river have been constructed or planned to connect the old town on the north bank of the river with the new town on the south bank. Decongestion of the old town has been attempted by moving some residents to houses in the new town.

The most recent development has been creation of railway connectivity with Srinagar, Anantnag and Qazigund and the planned connectivity with Banihal and Jammu.Roads have been improved and road network has grown considerably in Baramulla town since 1947. New schools and colleges have started and better facilities for education have been created. More bridges on Jhelum river have been constructed or planned to connect the old town on the north bank of the river with the new town on the south bank. Decongestion of the old town has been attempted by moving some residents to houses in the new town.

Baramullah district has seven assembly constituencies: Uri, Rafiabad, Sopore, Sangrama, Baramulla, Gulmarg and Pattan

Baramulla town has a Kendriya Vidyalaya (Central School) and a Sainik (Military) School, both affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education. St. Joseph’s School, Baramulla, is one of the oldest missionary schools in Kashmir valley. Other private schools include Baramulla Public Hr. Sec. School,Beacon House Baramulla (BHB) Hanfia Model High School Ushkara,Delhi Public School and many schools. There are a number of government-run public schools. Higher Secondary schools are also known as intermediate colleges.

Baramulla town has Govt. Degree College for Boys and Govt. Degree College for Women. The city has a nursing college associated with the district hospital. A medical college and polytechnic college include SSM Pariaspora Pattan Baramulla and also a govt. polytechnic college at Kanispora. Gujjar & Bakerwal (Boys)Hostel Ushkara Baramulla. Two more degree colleges for boys and girls may be started in the city. North campus of University of Kashmir is situated in Baramulla city.

Other towns in the district have schools and colleges.Each town of the district are having 1 or 2 govt. schools.

Baramulla town is located about 55 km (34 mi) from Srinagar, the capital of Jammu & Kashmir state. National Highway NH-1A connects the town to the rest of the country. Taxi and busses to the town are available from Srinagar and Jammu. The nearest airport is at Srinagar. The nearest railhead is Jammu Tawi, about 360 km (224 mi) to the south.

The 123 km (76 mi) road from Muzaffarabad to Baramulla is along Jhelum river. It crosses the actual line of control and then passes through Uri town, 45 km (28 mi) to the west of Baramulla town. The first 5 km of the road from Uri to Baramulla is not along the river but the remaining 40 km (25 mi) is along the river and passes through fine scenery of wooded mountains-slopes broken by cliffs that rise to great heights above the path while below it the river either flows in narrow paths or roars over ledges and other obstacles.

Gulmarg, the famous ski-resort of Kashmir is in Baramulla district. It is reached from Srinagar, 50 km (31 mi) to the east. It is 17 km (11 mi) south of Baramulla town.

Srinagar is the nearest airport, 50 km (31 mi) to the southeast. Jammu, the winter capital of the state also has an airport.

Baramulla is connected to Pattan, Uri, Sopore, Gulmarg, Tangmarg,Watergam and other towns in Baramulla district by road. It is also connected to Srinagar and other towns in Kashmir by road. It is also connected to Muzaffarabad across the actual line of control by 123 km (76 mi) road that was closed in October 1947 after invasion by Pakistani tribals. The road was reopened in 2005 but the travel across the line of control is highly restricted and controlled.

Baramulla is the last station on the 119 km (74 mi) long Kashmir railway that started in October 2009 and connects Baramulla to Srinagar and Qazigund. The railway track is connected to Banihal across the Pir Panjal mountains through the newly constructed 11 km long Banihal tunnel in 2012 and finally to Indian railway network at Jammu after a few years.

The most recent development has been creation of railway connectivity with Srinagar, Anantnag and Qazigund and the planned connectivity with Banihal and Jammu.

The commonly used language is Kashmiri, followed by Urdu, Gojri, and Punjabi