Barwani district is one of the districts of Madhya Pradesh state of India. The administrative headquarters of the district is at Barwani. Barwani district has an area of 3665 km² and a population 1,081,039 (2001 census). The district lies in the southwestern corner of Madhya Pradesh; the Narmada River forms its northern boundary. The Satpura Range lies to its south. The district is bordered by Maharashtra state to the south, Gujarat state to the west, Dhar District to the north and Khargone District to the east.

After the merger of the princely state of Barwani with Union of India in 1948 CE, it became a part of West Nimar District of the newly formed Madhya Bharat state. Barwani district was created on 25 May 1998, when it was separated from West Nimar District / Khargone District.

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Barwani one of the country’s 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).It is one of the 24 districts in Madhya Pradesh currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).

According to the 2011 census Barwani District has a population of 1,385,659, roughly equal to the nation of Swaziland or the US state of Hawaii.This gives it a ranking of 354th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 256 inhabitants per square kilometre (660/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 27.55%.Barwani has a sex ratio of 981 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 50.23%.

Languages spoken include three mutually unintelligible Bareli languages: Bareli Palya, a Bhil language with approximately 10 000 speakers centred in Madhya Pradesh; Bareli Pauri, with approximately 175 000 speakers, written in the Devanagari script; and Bareli Rathwi, with approximately 64 000 speakers.Other languages include Bhilali, with 1 150 000 speakers.