Bhagalpur is a city and a municipal corporation situated on the southern bank of the Ganges in the Indian state of Bihar. It is the third largest city in Bihar and the largest city in eastern Bihar. It is one of the major educational, commercial and political centers of Eastern India. It covers an area of 110 square kilometres (42 sq mi) and is the administrative headquarters of the Bhagalpur district and Bhagalpur division. The town is situated 220 kilometres (140 mi) east of Patna and 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of Munger.

The city was referred to as one of the largest trade centers in Eastern India by the 7th century Chinese travellers Xuanzang and Faxian. At that time the city had a large harbour at Champanagar, now known as Champanala on the Ganges river, which flows on the western boundary of the present city near Nathnagar. Many boats and coins of the Middle and Far East were found during archaeological excavations carried out in the 1970s. The silk industry in the city is hundreds of years old producing Tussar Silk and Tussar Saree, and Bhagalpur is known in India as the “Silk City”. The Silk Institute and Agricultural University are located in the city. Other education facilities include the Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur College of Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, T.N.B.Law College and Homeopathic colleges. In 2010, Bihar Agricultural University was set up in Sabour, Bhagalpur.

The Gangetic plains surrounding the city are very fertile and the main crops include rice, wheat, maize, barley, and oilseeds. The economy of Bhagalpur is dependent mainly on agriculture and small businesses. The river is home to the Gangetic dolphin, the National Aquatic Animal of India, which is found in Ganges Basin and the Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary is established near the town.

Bhagalpur is world renowned for its silk products and it is known in India as the “Silk City”, famous for its Tussar Silk & Tussar Saree. However due to industrial revolution, large portion of silk business which is based on handloom get affected. Total revival of this industry need to be redesign in order to gain expertise of silk based handloom worker which nowadays is neglected from successive government. The thermal power plant at NTPC Kahalgaon in Kahalgaon falls under Bhagalpur district. The largest industrial belt of the district is Barari industrial Area, with Kahalgaon industrial Area being equally important. The Government of India has established a Hand-loom park. A food park has been established by private entrepreneurs. Now Bhagalpur has chain restaurants like Domino’s, Pizza Hut, The Laziz and Café 42 – a coffee house chain of CAD(B).

As of the 2011 India census, Bhagalpur town has a population of 410,210 with a metro population of around 0.41 million, while the district as a whole has a population of 3 million. It is Second largest town in Bihar in terms of urban population next only to Patna . Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Bhagalpur has an average literacy rate of 81.16%, while the male literacy rate is 85.38% with women at 76.31%.