Bhavnagar is a city in the Bhavnagar district of the Saurashtra region of the Gujarat state of India. It was founded in 1724 by Bhavsinhji Gohil (1703–1764). It was the capital of Bhavnagar State, which was a princely state before it was merged into the Indian Union in 1948. It is now the administrative headquarter of the Bhavnagar district.
Bhavnagar is situated 198 km from the state capital Gandhinagar and to the west of the Gulf of Khambhat. It has always been an important city for trade with many large and small scale industries along with the world’s largest ship breaking yard (Alang) located 50 km away. Palitana Jain temples, which are important holy places for Jains, are situated 56 km away, and Velavadar national park, home to endangered species of wolves, antelopes and blackbucks, is situated 42 km away.
The Gohil Rajput of the Suryavanshi clan faced severe competition in Marwar. Around 1260 AD, they moved down to the Gujarat coast and established three capitals; Sejakpur, Umrala and Sihor.
In 1722–1723, forces led by Khanthaji Kadani and Pilaji Gaekwad attempted to raid Sihor but were repelled by Maharaja Bhavsinhji Gohil. After the war Bhavsinhji realised the reason for repeated attack was the location of Sihor (old Bhavnagar). In 1823, he established a new capital near Vadva village, 20 km away from Sihor, and named it Bhavnagar. It was a carefully chosen strategic location because of its potential for maritime trade. Naturally, Bhavnagar City became the capital of Bhavnagar State Bhavnagar Boroz.
The old town of Bhavnagar was a fortified town with gates leading to other important regional towns. It remained a major port for almost two centuries, trading commodities with Mozambique, Zanzibar, Singapore, and the Persian Gulf. The current Royal Family of Bhavnagar comprises Maharaja Vijayraj Singh Gohil and Maharani Samyukta Kumari, Prince Yuvraj Jaiveerraj Singh Gohil and Princess Brijeshwari Kumari Gohil.
Until the independence of India in 1947, Bhavnagar was an independent state ruled by the Rajput Gohil family. In 1947, the Deputy Prime Minister of the newly independent Indian Union Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel undertook the ambitious and complex process of unifying 565 princely states with the Union of India. The last Maharaja of Bhavnagar, Krishnakumar Sinhji handed over the administration of his Bombay State to the people’s representative in 1948, and Bhavnagar was the first state to join the Indian Union. The erstwhile royal family of Bhavnagar continues to lead an active role in the public eye as well as in business (hotels, real-estate, agriculture & ship-breaking) and is held in high regard by the population both in the city as well as areas that comprised the former princely state of Bhavanagar.
Bhavnagar is a coastal city on the eastern coast of Saurashtra, also known as Kathiawar, located at 21.77°N 72.15°E. It has an average elevation of 24 metres (78 ft). It occupies an area of 53.30 km². The general slope dips towards the north-east at the apex of Gulf of Khambhat. A small non-perennial river named Kansara Nala passes through the outer area of the city.
Bhavnagar has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSh), with hot, dry summers from March to mid-June, the wet monsoon season from mid-June to October during which the city receives around 550 mm of rain on average, and mild winters from November to February. The semiarid classification is due to the city’s high evapotranspiration. The average temperature from November to February is around 20 °C, with low humidity. Due to proximity to the sea, the climate remains fairly humid throughout the year.
The highest record temperature was 54 °C (129 °F) on 26 May 1988, while the lowest record temperature was 2 °C (36 °F) on 11 December 1973.
The region of Saurashtra is a geologically active part of West India, and falls in the seismic zone 3 of the Zoning Map of the Bureau of Indian Standards. The region as a whole and the area around Bhavnagar in particular has been tectonically unstable.
Between 9 August 2000 and 15 December 2000, there was a series of earthquakes in east Saurashtra with epicenters in Bhavnagar. 132 earthquakes of 0.5M to 3.8M were recorded. There were five earthquakes greater than 3M, with a maximum magnitude of 3.8. These events were confined to an area which covered southern part of the Bhavnagar city and Tarsamiya village on the outskirts of the town. There were no loss of life recorded during this earthquake.
Home to socialism, reforms, and cultural legacy, Bhavnagar is considered a city of education and culture, and is known as the cultural capital of Saurashtra. People of Bhavnagar are considered to be easy-going, and art-loving. The artists and literary luminaries of Bhavnagar have immensely contributed to the culture of the city. Gujarati is the language of normal life, although Hindi is commonly understood. Knowledge of English is limited to the more educated population of the city.
Bhavnagar has various schools and educational institutions. Nanabhai Bhatt, Gijubhai Badheka, Manbhai Bhatt (Founder of Shishuvihar), Harbhai Trivedi, and Taraben Modak helped develop the rural and women’s education. Shamaldas Arts College where Mahatma Gandhi studied in 1884 AD is the one of the oldest institutions to provide higher education. Some of the other institutions which provide higher education are Bhavnagar University, Shantilal Shah Engineering College, Government Engineering College, Bhavnagar.
Bhavnagar is well connected to other cities of Gujarat such as Ahmedabad, Vadodara and Surat, etc. by road, with bus services operated by the state-owned transport corporation as well as private operators such as VTCOS. Bhavnagar Terminus under the Bhavnagar railway division, serving the city, connect it to Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Surat, Vadodara, Mangalore, Kochi, Quilon, Trivandrum, Mumbai, New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore and other major cities of India by rail road. Daily flights to Mumbai are operated by Jet Airways daily from Bhavnagar Airport. Private auto rickshaws, bicycles, and motorcycles are other modes of transport within the city and nearby villages.
All Over India Ltd. Transportation is V-Trasn (I) Ltd. Which is establish in Bhavnagar also provide the Xpress Services and Logistic services. From Bhavnagar to All India