Bongaigaon is the 2nd largest city of Lower Assam after Guwahati. Bongaigaon acts as the unofficial commercial capital and one of the most important cities in Assam. The city is one of the biggest commercial and industrial hubs of North-East India and also of Assam. It is also the 4th largest city of Assam by municipal area & population. Bongaigaon City acts also as the gateway of Northeast Frontier Railway zone with its New Bongaigaon Junction railway station, 2nd biggest railway station in Northeast India. The Asian Development Bank selected the city on their urban planning list of cities from other countries of Asia. Bongaigaon is one of the most populated urban agglomerations in west Assam with line of Guwahati, Dibrugarh, Jorhat and Silchar. The City is the administrative headquarters and municipal board of Bongaigaon District.
It was the last capital of the Kamatapur Kingdom and home to many historical monuments of Assamese culture. The city, divided into two parts – Old Bongaigaon and New Bongaigaon – is situated 180 kilometres (112 mi) north west of Guwahati, largest city of Assam. To meet the demands of Bodos of Assam, Bongaigaon was divided up to give way for Chirang district. Bongaigaon has a major petrochemical industry, the Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL BGR). The town occupied a place in the map of Indian Railway with the establishment of the railway station in the year 1908. Most of the institutions like ITI, Bongaigaon College, Office of the Assam State Electricity Board in the early 1960s and in fact the very base of the development of the town was laid in this decade only. The development further gained momentum with the establishment of the Bongaigaon Refinery and Petrochemicals Limite (BRPL) Complex in the year 1972 at Dhaligaon and also Thermal Power Plant at Salakati. Though these areas are not within the limit of Bongaigaon Municipality the town also caters to the demand of this population. The Bongaigaon Town Committee was first constituted in the year 1961 and was upgraded to a Municipal Board in the year 1977. Presently the Municipal Area consists of 25 nos. of wards covering an area of 14.31 sq m.
The city today has evolved to be one of the major commercial and business hubs of the state with growing numbers of shopping malls, restaurants, hotels, residential apartments and educational institutions. The city also serves as the base for tourism to famous places such as the Manas National Park.Centrally located within the state, the city depicts a vibrant Assamese township and culture, making it one of the most preferred places for local people to congregate.
The decision of the government of Assam was taken in 1989, to create a new district of Bongaigaon, carving out some areas of the Goalpara and Kokrajhar District with its headquarters located at Bongaigaon. On 29 September 1989, the creation of Bongaigaon District was declared by the Government of Assam with its headquarters at Bongaigaon. In 2005, Government of Assam declared Bongaigaon town as a city.
From the chequered historical background of this district, it can easily be surmised that the entire area was ruled by Kings/Zaminders/Feudal Lords hailing from the Koch-Rajbongshies belonging to Indo-Mongoloid ethnic group of peoples right from the 15th century to the end of princely states in AD 1956. The kings of this area had their hoary past and can be traced back to the “Kiratees” of epic age (Mahabharata fame) that is pre-vedic age. These Kiratees of dimpast are also mentioned in Kalika Purana and Jogingi Tantra and also in histories written both by native and foreign scholars.
The most popular Assamese newspaper of Assam Asomiya Pratidin is published from Bongaigaon along with Guwahati, Dibrugarh and North Lakhimpur.
Chilari Indoor Stadium and Swimming Pool At Borpara and a Mini Stadium Near Chapguri Road.