Boudh District, also called Bauda District, is an administrative district of Odisha state in eastern India. The city of Boudh is the district headquarters. As of 2011 it is the second least populous district of Orissa (out of 30), after Debagarh.

The district lies in central Orissa, to the south of the Mahanadi River, which forms the western and northern boundary of the district. Across the Mahanadi lay the districts of Bolangir to the west, Subarnapur to the northwest, and Angul to the northeast. Nayagarh District lies to the southeast, Phulbani District to the south, and Kalahandi district to the southwest.

Geographically the Boudh district extends from Latitudes 20°.22’ to 20°.50’N and Longitudes 83°.34’ to 84°.49’E. It is bounded by River Mahanadi & Anugul District to the north, Kandhamal District to the south, Nayagarh District to the east and River Tel & Subarnapur District to the west.

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Boudh one of the country’s 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).It is one of the 19 districts in Orissa currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).

Boudh is well connected with road and rail with other district headquarters and the state capital Bhubaneswar. The distance of Boudh from Bhubaneswar is 240 km. One can come to Boudh via State Highway No. 1 & 14 ( via Nayagarh –Charichhak) or can come by National Highway No. 42 . ( via- Angul).Regular train services are available from Bhubaneswar viz. Bhubaneswar –Sambalpur Intercity Express, Hirakud Express,Puri-Sambalpur passenger train. To reach Boudh one has to get down at Rairakhol station. From here one has to travel around 27 km. either by Bus or taxi to reach Boudh. The nearest Airport is at Bhubaneswar.

According to the 2011 census Boudh district has a population of 439,917, roughly equal to the nation of Malta.This gives it a ranking of 552nd in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 142 inhabitants per square kilometre (370/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 17.82%.Baudh has a sex ratio of 991 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 72.51%.

Boudh is a new district but the civilization of Boudh area is as old as the oldest river valley civilizations of the world. As all civilization started on the banks of river and riverine passage was the mode of transport in the days of yore, people of Boudh claimed to be inheritors of rich culture. From 2nd century AD up to a period of one thousand years Boudh was an important seat of Buddhism, Savisim and Shakti cult in the country. Boudh is part of Kosali Culture. It was highly developed educationally and culturally during the Soma Vanshi period and also during the Gangas and Surya Vanshi period.