Buldana

Buldhana district is a district in the Amravati division of Maharashtra state in western India. It is situated at the westernmost border of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra and is 500 km from the state capital, Mumbai. It is bounded by Madhya Pradesh on the north, Akola, Washim, and Amravati districts on the east, Jalna district on the south, and Jalgaon and Aurangabad districts on the west. Buldhana is religiously important as the site of the Shri Gajanan Maharaj temple, at Shegaon.

Buldhana, along with the rest of Berar Province, was part of the kingdom of Vidarbha mentioned in the Mahabharata, a Sanskrit epic poem. Berar formed part of the Maurya Empire during the reign of Ashoka (272–231 BCE). Berar came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty (2nd century BCE–2nd century CE), the Vakataka dynasty (3rd to 6th centuries), the Chalukya dynasty (6th to 8th centuries), the Rashtrakuta Dynasty (8th to 10th centuries), the Chalukyas again (10th to 12th centuries), and finally the Yadava dynasty of Devagiri (late 12th to early 14th centuries). A period of Muslim rule began when Alauddin Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, conquered the region in the early 14th century. The region was part of the Bahmani Sultanate, which broke away from the Delhi Sultanate in the mid-14th century. The Bahmani Sultanate broke up into smaller sultanates at the end of the 15th century, and in 1572 Berar became part of the Nizam Shahi sultanate, based at Ahmednagar. The Nizam Shahis ceded Berar to the Mughal Empire in 1595. As Mughal rule started to unravel at the start of the 18th century, Asaf Jah I, Nizam of Hyderabad, seized the southern provinces of the empire (including Berar) in 1724, forming an independent state.

Lonar crater lake is located in Buldhana district. It is the second largest impact crater in basaltic rock in the world. It was formed 60,000 years ago by a meteor impact. The pH of the water is about 11 (extremely alkaline). Lonar Crater has very different flora and fauna in its vicinity.The Dnyanganga Sanctuary is situated in the district. There is good forest area in the sanctuary.The climate is tropical and people mostly wear cotton clothes.

Cotton, sorghum and other cereals, oil seeds, soybean, sunflower, and groundnuts are the predominant crops grown in the district.Khamgaon and Malkapur are the major cotton trading towns in the district. The district has many minor and medium size irrigation projects. The important ones are Nalganga and Vaan. There are thirteen Agriculture Produce Market Committees-Main Market, one in each tehsil, and there are twenty sub-markets in the districts.

The Indian Council for Agriculture research funded a farm science centre Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jalgaon Jamod in the district in 1994.The district has major industrial areas at Khamgoan and Malkapur and has smaller industrial areas at Chikhli, Buldhana, Dasarkhed, Deoulgaonraja, Mehkar, Sangrampur, and Lonar.

Motor bus, jeep, two-wheeler and railway are the popular modes of transport.There are many Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation bus stands in all towns of the district. There are State Transport bus depots at Buldhana, Malkapur, Chikhli, Mehkar, Khamgaon, Shegaon and Jalgaon-Jamod.

There is a fair called Chaitra Masa Suklapaksha Navami at Shegaon on Rama Navami in Chaitra (March or April) each year.Common folk arts are Bhajan (devotional singing), Kirtan (devotional chanting with musical instruments), and Gondhal (a complex art form involving ritual acts, dances, songs, and poems).

Residents of Buldhana are bilingual in Korku language, Hindi or Marathi language. Nihali language, a language isolate of India, is spoken by some 2,000 people (1991) in the Buldana district of Maharashtra.Youth Hostel Buldhana is one of two youth hostels in Maharashtra and is located near Zilla Crida Sankulan with a 50-bed dormitory and five double rooms.