Chandrapur District is a district in Nagpur Division of the Indian state of Maharashtra. The district was formerly known as Chanda District. In 1964, it was renamed as Chandrapur. It was the largest district in India until it was split into the separate district of Gadchiroli. It had a population of 2,071,101 of which 32.11% were urban as of 2001.

It is famous for its Super Thermal Power Plant, one of the biggest in Asia, and its vast reserves of coal in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Chandrapur also has large reservoirs of limestone. The abundance of lime and coal supplies many cement factories like L&T (now UltraTech Cement), Gujarat Ambuja (Maratha Cement Works), Manikgarh, Murli Cement and ACC Cement in the district.

Tadoba National Park near Chandrapur is one of India’s 28 Project tiger reserves.The city of Chandrapur, the administrative headquarters, has ancient temples of Anchaleshwar (Lord Shiva) and Mahakali (Goddess Mahakali).

According to tradition and legend the name of the place was ‘Lokapura’ which was first changed to ‘ Indpur’ and subsequently to Chandrapur. During the British colonial period it was called Chanda district, which was again changed to its original name ‘Chandrapur ‘ around 1964. Other places of the region in ancient times include wairangad, Kosala, Bhadravati and Markanda. Hindu and Buddhist kings are said to have ruled the area for a long time, Later on Gonds overtook Mana Chiefs who ruled Chandrapur around 9th century and Gond Kings ruled the area till 1751 after which Maratha period started. Raghuji Bhosale, the last King of the dynasty, died heirless in 1853 and Nagpur province together with Chandrapur was declared annexed to British Empire.

According to the 2011 census Chandrapur district had a population of 2,194,262,roughly equal to the nation of Latvia or the US state of New Mexico.This gives it a ranking of 207th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 192 inhabitants per square kilometre (500/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 5.95%. Chandrapur has a sex ratio of 959 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 81.35%.

Chandrapur district is located in the eastern edge of Maharashtra in Nagpur division and forms the eastern part of ‘Vidarbha’ region. It is located between 19.30’ N and 20.45’ N latitude and 78.46’E longitude. It is the easternmost district of the state of Maharashtra. The district is bounded by Nagpur, Bhandara and Wardha on the northern side, Yavatmal on the western side, Gadchiroli on the eastern side and Adilibad district of the Telangana on the southern side. Physiographically, the district is situated in the Wainganga and Wardha river basin. The eastern and western boundaries of the district are well defined by the rivers Wainganga and Wardha, the tributaries of Godavari. Chandrapur district occupies an area of 11,443 km² which constitutes 3.72 percent of the total area of the state. Geographically Maharashtra is located 16.40 N to 22.10 N latitude and 72.60 E to 80.9 E longitude.

Owing to the geographical location and physical features, the climate of the district can be classified as a tropical hot climate with a high range of temperature throughout the year. Primarily there are two prominent seasons in the district – the very hot summer and moderate winter. The summer months are very hot and prolonged while winter is short and mild. The monsoon season starts immediately after summer and lasts until late September. The southwest monsoons bring a lot of rainfall during rainy season and there is no drought-prone area in the district.