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Dhubri is the headquarter of Dhubri district (Assam) India. It is an old town on the bank of the Brahmaputra and Gadadhar rivers, with historical significances. In 1883, the town was first constituted as a Municipal Board. It is situated about 280 kilometres (174 mi) west from Guwahati, the state capital.
Dhubri was an important commercial centre and had a busy river port particularly for jute. Dhubri is called the “Land of Rivers” as it is covered three sides by rivers.
The word Dhuburi comes from a legendary lady named Netai-Dhubuni. The story is connected with Behula-Lakhindar. The word Dhubuni is considered a corruption of ‘Dhuburi’. According to Bodo-Kacharis, the word is of Bodo origin and derived from Dubra, a kind of grass. The story of lady Netai-Dhubuni is widely accepted for the naming history of Dhubri and that is where the Gurdwara Sri Tegh Bahadur Sahib stands.
This place is famous for the Sikh Gurdwara Gurdwara Damdama Sahib or Thara Sahib which was constructed in memory of visit of First Sikh Guru Nanak Dev and later it was followed by visit of Ninth guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur and the Gurdwara is named as Gurdwara Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib. Hence, it has great importance for Sikh community.
Until 1874, Dhubri was mostly a part of Bengal kings. In 1874, the British Government created a new province named Assam Valley Province and incorporated Goalpara district area comprising three civil subdivisions Dhubri, Goalpara and Kokrajhar with the new Assam Province. In 1879, the district headquarters was shifted from Goalpara to Dhubri town. The district of Dhubri is again subdivided in three districts namely Dhubri, Goalpara and Kokrajhar. The town of Dhubri falls under the jurisdiction of the district of Dhubri whose headquarters is at town Dhubri.
The present Dhubri District is one of the three Civil Sub-divisions of erst-while Goalpara district, established in 1876 during British regime. In 1879 the District headquarters was shifted from Goalpara to Dhubri.
In the year 1983 Goalpara district was divided into four separate districts and Dhubri is one of those. Covering an area of 2,838 km2. including forests, riverines, hills etc. the district has become the most densely populated district in India with a density of 584 persons per km2.(As per 2001 census).
Dhubri Dist has been visited by many historical personalities like – Guru Nanaka, Srimanta Sankardeva, Guru Teg Bahadur, Swami Vivekananda, Mahatma Gandhi, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Gopinath Bordoloi and others.
Dhubri town also was very famous for the Match Factory (WIMCO), though it has shut down due to circumstances but still people who had witnessed the same still remembering the beauty of the factory its staff quarters and their modern art of living.
Dhubri is also famous for its Durga Puja and Dashera.
The Dhubri Town was first constituted as a Municipality in 1883. The Dhubri Town is 290 km far from the State Capital at Dispur.
More than 50,000 Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims and all faiths devotees from all over the country and abroad assemble in this historic shrine every year in the month of December to mark the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur, which starts on 3 December with great solemnity and ceremony. Sikhs call the week long reverence of Sahidee-Guru-Parav which is marked with a massive procession. Guru Tegh Bahadur thus earned the affectionate title of “Hind-di-Chadar” or the Shield of Hind dates back to Hindustan.
Dhubri has an airport at Rupshi which is about 23 km from the town. It was constructed during World War II by the British mainly for military purpose to accommodate 52 jet aeroplanes. Till 1983, the Indian Airlines and some private commercial flights operated regularly between Calcutta, Guwahati and Dhubri. Now it is totally closed. However, recently the ministry of DONER, GOI, has taken some initiative to renovate and functionalise the airport. An airport authority team from Guwahati conducted a survey the historic airport, whether the place could be rebuilt as an airport.
The town had a very busy river port on the bank of the Brahmaputra which was used as an international trade centre with the neighbouring countries, specially in British era. At present, this port is lying idle.
The importance of the railway station and the MG line was also decreased since 1947, when the direct line to Calcutta was snapped as it ran through erstwhile East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). The train service has newly started on 2010 again, and it is functioning smoothly. However the train services running from the Dhubri railway station are taking a new route from Dhubri to Kamakhya and Guwahati Junction. Trains originating from Dhubri station are, Dhubri – Silghat (Rajya Rani Express), Dhubri – Siliguri (Inter City Express) and Dhubri Fakiragram passenger.
Dhubri District is bestowed with attractive scenic beauties. Both the banks of river Brahmaputra with its lush green fields, blue hills and hillock is a feast to the eyes of the onlookers. The Gurdwara Tegh Bahadur Shaibji, the Rangamati Mosque, Mahamaya Dham, Chakrasila wildlife sanctuary and the royal palaces attract the people for their unique structures, religious sanctity and mythological importance.