History of Uttar Pradesh begins with the arrival of Aryans from Central Asia. In early 2000 B.C, when Aryans started settling along the Doab of Ganges and Ghagra. Aryans settlement was mainly rural in nature and was named “Madhyadesh” i.e. ‘Central Country’.

Various Vedic era kingdoms ruled Uttar Pradesh . The most important was Kosala , ruled by King Dasaratha and his successor Ram , were protagonist of epic called Ramayana. Another epic, Mahabharata , tells about the kings who ruled in and around modern Uttar Pradesh and were also part of the war of succession between Kaurvas and Pandavas.

Middle of 1st millennium B.C saw the onset of Lord Buddha and Buddhism. Sarnath near Varanasi is the place where Lord Buddha gave his first sermon. In that period, state was ruled by Magadh dynasty. It was then passed to Nanda dynasty and then Mauryan who dethroned Nanda. In the post-Christ era, Kannauj became the center of power. Various rulers ruled from Kannauj but it was during the reign of Harshavardhana when the city was raised to its highest point.

The arrival of Muslim rule acted as the catalyst in the history of the state. It saw the collapse of Rajput rule in U.P. and their influence was restricted to the surrounding of areas Rajasthan. During the Sultanate era, U.P. came under the rule of almost all the emperors .

Real high came during the rule of Mughal when Emperor Akbar chose the city of Agra and Fatehpur Sikri as his capital cities. The Mughal rule saw the construction of some of the most glorious monuments in Uttar Pradesh. It also witnessed irreversible trends towards the development and consolidation of administrative and land holding systems. It also the development of unique art, crafts and culinary traditions of U.P.