Ernakulam is a district of Kerala, India situated in the central part of that state. Spanning an area of about 3,068 km2, Ernakulam district is home to over 12% of Kerala’s population. Its headquarters is located at Kakkanad, a suburb of Kochi city. Ernakulam is known as the commercial capital of Kerala. The district is famous for its ancient temples, churches, and mosques. The district includes the largest metropolitan region of the state, Greater Cochin. Ernakulam district is the highest revenue yielding district in the state. It is the third most populous district in Kerala, after Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram (out of 14).Ernakulam district also hosts the highest number of international and domestic tourists in Kerala state.
The language spoken in Ernakulam is Malayalam which is the mother-tongue of Kerala. English is widely used, especially in business circles. Ernakulam became India’s first district having 100 percent banking or full ‘meaningful financial inclusion’ in 2012.
The name Ernakulam is derived from Erayanarkulam which means the abode of Lord Shiva.Ernakulam was also known as “Rishinagakulam” in ancient days.
Ernakulam district covers an area of 3,068 km2 located on the Western Coastal Plains of India. It is surrounded by Thrissur District to the north, Idukki District to the east, Alappuzha and Kottayam districts to the south and Arabian sea to west. The district can be divided geographically into highland, midland and coastal area. The altitude of the highland is about 300 m. The Periyar River, Kerala’s longest, flows through all the taluks except Muvattupuzha. The Muvattupuzha River and a branch of Chalakkudy River also flow through the district. The average yearly rainfall in the district is 3432 mm. The district has a moderate climate, and mostly falls within the Malabar Coast moist forests ecoregion, while the highlands are part of the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests ecoregion. Many types of sands, soil and also rocks which are geological importance is abundant here. Cochin international air port is located in northern part of the district at Nedumbassery village in Angamaly. Owing to the international airport, water ways, railways, and road ways, Ernakulam is one of the most strategically connected district in the state.
Ernakulam district is the richest district in Kerala in terms of GDP and per capita income. Ernakulam district is bestowed with all the geographical factors, which help the development of industry, and it is in the vanguard of all other districts in Kerala in the field of industry. The availability of all types of transport facilities viz., road, rail, canal, sea, air is a factor which is unique to this district. Ernakulam is the biggest commercial center in the state of Kerala. Its M.G. Road is the location of some of the biggest businesses in Kerala.
The sea along the entire coast of the district and the backwaters abound in fish of various kinds offer enormous natural facilities for both marine and inland fisheries. Kochi is an ideal place that supports fisheries in its various aspects like education, research and development.
Ernakulam district is blessed with all types of transport. It has the most number of Regional Transport Offices in the state. There are 9 Regional Transport Offices.
The flora of this district is tropical. The heavy rainfall combined with moderate temperature and fertile soil support abundant vegetation. Many of the common plants are found in the coastal area, which forms the low land region. Coconut is extensively cultivated here. The midland region is mainly occupied by coconut palms. Paddy, tapioca, pepper, pineapple and pulses are also cultivated here. The lower slopes of the highland region are under teak, and rubber cultivation. The eastern part of the district has dense forests with its characteristic fauna.
Ernakulam occupies an important place among the districts of Kerala in the field of literacy and educational standards. Ernakulam District is the first district in the whole country to have 100 percent literacy by 1990. Pothanicad, first panchayath in India that achieved 100% literacy according to state literacy programme is in this district. There are two prominent universities in this district – Sanskrit University, Kalady and Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT), Kalamassery. Ernakulam district has the most number of educational institutions in the state. Kendriya Vidyalaya and St. Mary’s Higher Secondary School, Morakkala. St. Mary’s English Medium School, Morakkala is also located here.