Garhwa district is one of the twenty-four districts of Jharkhand state, India. Garhwa district is a part of the Palamu division, and its administrative headquarters are in the city of Garhwa.

On 1 April 1991, this district was created from the former Palamu district by separating its former Garhwa sub-division.As of 2011 Garhwa district is currently a part of the Red Corridor.

Garhwa district lies between 23° 60’ and 24° 39’ north latitude and 83° 22’ and 84° 00’ east longitude. It is bordered by the Son River on the north, Palamau district of Jharkhand state on the east, Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state on the south, and Sonebhadra district of Uttar Pradesh on the west.

In 2006 the Indian government named Garhwa district as one of the country’s 250 most forward districts, out of a total of 640.It is one of the 21 districts in Jharkhand state currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).

Garhwa is well-connected to roads and railways. Daily bus services are available from Ranchi and major districts of Jharkhand, Bihar and Chhattisgarh. Road communication in this district is not as good as in other districts of the state. Garhwa district is connected to Rewa in Madhya Pradesh and Ranchi in Jharkhand by National Highway No. 75. There are 210 km of state highway, 55 km of national highway (NH-75) and 96.95 km of district roads. Link roads and corridors are altogether 190 km.

The nearest airport is at Varanasi (140 km). Garhwa Railway Station is a major railhead of the Eastern Railway zone. National Highway 75 has its route through Garhwa.

According to the 2011 census, Garhwa district has a population of 1,322,387, roughly equal to the nation of Mauritius or the US state of New Hampshire.This gives it a ranking of 368th in India, out of a total of 640. The district has a population density of 327 inhabitants per square kilometre (850/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 27.71%. Garhwa has a sex ratio of 933 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 62.18%.