- > Blackbuck, Andhra Pradesh
- > Gayal, Arunachal Pradesh
- > One-horned rhino, Assam
- > Gaur, Bihar
- > Wild buffalo, Chattisgarh
- > Asiatic lion, Gujarat
- > Snow leopard, Himachal Pradesh
- > Indian elephant, Jharkhand
- > Indian giant squirrel, Maharashtra
- > Hoolock gibbon, Mizoram
- > Red panda, Sikkim
- > Nilgiri tahr, Tamil Nadu
- > Spotted deer, Telangana
- > Phayre’s langur, Tripura
- > Fishing cat, West Bengal
An Indian bison is also known as Gaur, that is the chief bovine species and have their innate to Southeast and South Asia. They have been listed by the IUCN Red List prepared in year 1986 as the most endangered species since they were continuously diminishing and have decrease almost 70 percent for the last three generations. Today the count of these species is steady in the areas where they have been cared while their count is being re-established in the areas where they were unkempt.
It is type of wild cattle and is the biggest among its type of species. The other types of the gaur species are called seladang and pyoung for Malayan and Burmese gaur respectively.
Gaur has sturdy and huge build along with the highly curved rims that are on the forehead just between the horns that lean forward and create a muffle on the top of the head. Gaurs have protruding elevation on its back. It has big ears and a tail and as the bull gets aged the hair at its back get thin. Dark brown is the skin color of adult male gaur while it gets black as the gaur gets older; the color is ashy grey or sometimes dirty white at its upper head and near the cervix. It has white stockings and the snout is of dull color. The young bulls have pale color and have tinges at its various parts of body. They have a very short tail. There is a big crest that goes from shoulder to the gaurs back where the back is 12 cm lower that its shoulder. They have short and shiny hair and have a thin and sharp tramp.
The overall length of a gaur’s body is from 250 to 330 cm and a tail that goes from 70 to 105 cm in length while the shoulder height is from 165 to 220 cm. The usual weight varies between 650 to 1000 kg and a maximum of 1500 kg. The weight and height of male gaur is much more than that of female gaur.
They have loose skin around the neck area. Male and female gaur have horns that goes from the sides of their head and gets a curve shape while moving in the upward direction. There is an arched shape crest on its forehead. The horns are flat at the base while forms curve at its length and have a bent that goes to the inner side. The tips of the horn are black while the rest of the horn remains pale green or yellow. The horns can grow from 60 to 115 cm in length.
These species of mammal are the most prevalent living creatures. The other species that grow heavy over the time are elephants, hippopotamus, rhinos and the giraffe. An Asian elephant and the Indian rhino are the other species that are as heavy as the gaur.
The habitat of the gaur is majorly through Southeast and South Asia that includes Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Peninsular Malaysia, Bhutan and India.
This species is found in the partial green area, the humid deciduous forests and in the evergreen forests. These species love the hilly landscape. They can be found in abandon in the sea level that is at an altitude 2800 meters and can be sparsely seen in the low-lying areas.
During the mid of 1990s the number of gaur in India was approximately 12000 to 22000. Almost 2000 of these have been found in Nagarhole and Bandipur National Park, more than a 1000 can be seen in Tadoba Andhari while 500 to 1000 in the Periyar Tiger reserve and the silent valley while a more than 800 can be seen Bhadra wildlife sanctuary.
In few areas they can be seen in the daytime while at other times it can be seen during nights because of the encroachment that people have done in this forest. In the central part of India these species are mostly active during the nights while in the mornings they can be hardly seen in open areas. When the weather is dry they gather in small areas, while they scatter in the nearby hills when the monsoon arrives. They generally do not feel to bathe but instead use the water as their drinking resource.