Gonda

Gonda is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city of Gonda is the district headquarters, and also the administrative centre for the Devipatan Division.With an area of 3,404 square kilometres (1,314 sq mi), Gonda has borders with Shrawasti district to the north, Balrampur and Siddharthnagar districts to the northeast, Basti district to the east, Faizabad district to the south, Bara Banki district to the southwest, and Bahraich district to the northwest. The district lies between 26° 47′ and 27° 20′ north latitude and 81° 30′ and 82° 46′ east longitude.

The territory covered by the present district of Gonda formed part of the ancient Kosala Kingdom. After the death of Rama, the celebrated sovereign of the Solar line who ruled Kosala, the kingdom was divided into two portions defined by the Ghaghara river. The northern portion was then ruled by his son, Lava with the city of Sravasti as his capital.

More recently, ancient Buddhist remains dating to the early days of Buddhism have been found throughout the region, including at Sravasti.

During the medieval period, the first Muslim invasion of the region, to the north of the Ghaghara River, took place in the second quarter of the 11th century under Syed Salar Masud. The rulers of Gonda and surrounding districts formed a league to offer united resistance to Masood. In the second half of the 13th century Gonda was included in the government of Bahraich by the early Muslim rulers, and hence has no independent history of its own. Further, there is no specific reference about the district until the reign of the Tughlaqs.

In 1394, the district came under the rule of Khwaja Jahan Malik Sarwar, the founder of the Sharqi dynasty of Jaunpur. From earliest days of Muslim domination till the advent of Akbar, the history of Gonda district is primarily the history of local clans. During the early phase of this period the whole of Gonda was ruled by aboriginal Dom, Tharu Tribe, Bhar, Pasi and the like. The district formed an integral part of the empire of Akbar (1556–1605).

With the annexation of the province of Awadh by the East India Company in February 1856, Gonda became a separate district in the Gonda-Bahraich Commissionership. Annexation passed off quietly, although the Gonda raja exhibited strong disapproval of the measure and was with difficulty persuaded to leave his fort at Gonda and meet the district officer.

Gonda has a tropical monsoon climate, typical of India’s plains districts. There are three seasons: summer, rainy, and winter. Summer is from March to June. The average temperature of the summer is nearly 30 °C (86 °F). A hot wind known as the Loo blows in May and in early June. The rainy season is from July to October. Winter is from November to February, with the second half of December and first half of January the coldest.

There are two remarkable areas of natural vegetation. The first is the forests of Kuwano, which has various types of trees like sagon, haldu, sal, shishaw, tibau, mahua, bass, neem, jamun, mayo, etc.; The second is the forest of Mankapur to Tikri and around Tikri, which features trees such as tibau, sakhu, sal, etc.

Gonda features sandy, loamy, and clay soils. Water percolates downward in sandy soils, so those are not very fertile. Nevertheless, zayad crops are produced near the banks of rivers in this soil. Loamy soil, light yellow in colour, is fertile and contains fossils and minerals. It is found in the upper part of Gonda around Khorahsa, Dumariya Deeh, Gonda, Itia thok, Mankapur, etc. Clay soil can retain water, so it is suitable for crops that require more irrigation, such as rice grown in paddy fields, though it becomes hard when it dries. Clay soil is found around Colonel Ganj, Itiathok, and Mankapur.