Gulbarga district officially known as Kalaburagi district is one of the 30 districts of Karnataka state in southern India. Kalaburagi city is the administrative headquarters of the district.

This district is situated in northern Karnataka between 76°.04′ and 77°.42 east longitude, and 17°.12′ and 17°.46′ north latitude, covering an area of 10,951 km². This district is bounded on the west by Bijapur district and Solapur district of Maharashtra state, on the north by Bidar district and Osmanabad district of Maharashtra state, on the south by Yadgir district, and on the east by Ranga Reddy district and Medak district of Telangana state.

The city of Kalburgi was founded in the 10-11th century. Thereafter, during 13th century, the Bahmani Sultans as their capital &changes the pure Kannada name of this city and they called Gulbarga. Gulbarga literally means garden of roses. However, the history of the region dates back to the 6th Century when the Rashtrakutas gained control over the area, but the Chalukyas regained their domain and reigned for over two hundred years. Around the close of the 12th century, the Yadavas of Devagiri and the Hoysalas of Halebidu took control of the district. The present Gulbarga District and Raichur District formed part of their domain.

The northern Deccan, including the district of Gulbarga, passed under control of the Muslim Sultanate of Delhi. The revolt of the Muslim officers appointed from Delhi resulted in founding of the Bahmani Sultanate in 1347 by Alauddin Hasan Gangu, who chose Gulbarga (Ahasnabad during this period) to be his capital.

From 1724 to 1948 the territory occupied by the present-day Gulbarga district was part of Hyderabad state ruled by the famous and one of the richest kings, the Nizam. It was integrated into India in September 1948.

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Gulbarga one of the country’s 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).It is one of the five districts in Karnataka currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).

Gulbarga is situated in Deccan Plateau located at 17.33°N 76.83°E and the general elevation ranges from 300 to 750 meters above mean sea level. Two main rivers, Krishna and Bhima, flow in the district. Black soil is predominant soil type in the district. The district has a large number of tanks which, in addition to the rivers, irrigate the land. The Upper Krishna Project is major irrigation venture in the district. Bajra, toor, sugarcane, groundnut, sunflower, sesame, castor bean, black gram, jowar, wheat, cotton, ragi, Bengal gram, and linseed are grown in this district.

The weather in Gulbarga consists of 3 main seasons. The summer which spans from late February to mid June. It is followed by the south west monsoon which spans from the late June to late September heavy rainfall may go up to 750mm. It is then followed by dry winter weather until mid January. Barring the hot summer months, the salubrious weather of Gulbarga makes a visit to this historical city a pleasant one.

According to the 2011 census Gulbarga district has a population of 2,564,892, roughly equal to the nation of Kuwait or the US state of Nevada.This gives it a ranking of 162nd in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 233 inhabitants per square kilometre (600/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 17.94%.Gulbarga has a sex ratio of 962 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 65.65%.