Gurgaon is a city in the Indian state of Haryana located immediately south of the National Capital Territory of Delhi, 32 kilometres (20 mi) southwest of New Delhi and 268 kilometres (167 mi) southwest of Chandigarh, the state capital. As of 2011 Gurgaon had a population of 876,824. Witnessing rapid urbanization, Gurgaon has become a leading financial and industrial hub with the third highest per capita income in India. Historically known as Gurugram, the city’s economic growth story started when the leading Indian automobile manufacturer Maruti Suzuki India Limited established a manufacturing plant in Gurgaon in the 1970s. Today, Gurgaon has local offices for more than 250 Fortune 500 companies.
The origin of the city’s name can be traced back to the Sanskrit epic Mahabharat; it is believed that the land was owned by the legendary rulers Pandavas and Kauravas, who presented it to Guru Dronacharaya, their royal guru for warfare, as an appreciation of his training. The land came to be known as Gurugram which over time became distorted to Gurgaon. The village still exists within the modern day city.
On 12 April 2016, Chief Minister of Haryana Manohar Lal Khattar announced a proposal to officially rename the city to Gurugram, subject to the approval of the Haryana cabinet and the Union Government. He argued that the new name would help to preserve the “rich heritage” of the city by emphasizing its history and association with Dronacharaya.
Gurgaon is located in Gurgaon district in the Indian state of Haryana and is situated in the south eastern part of the state, and northern part of the country. The city is located on the border with Delhi with New Delhi to its north east. The city has a total area of 738.8 square kilometres (285.3 sq mi).
Under the Köppen climate classification, Gurgaon experiences a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa). The city experiences four distinct seasons – spring (February – March), summer (April – August), fall/autumn (September – October) and winter (November – January), along with the monsoon season setting in towards the later half of the summer. Summers, from early April to mid October, are typically hot and humid, with an average daily June high temperature of 40 °C (104 °F). The season experiences heat indices easily breaking 43 °C (109 °F). Winters are cold and foggy with few sunny days, and with a December daytime average of 3 °C (37 °F). The Western Disturbance brings some rain in winters that further adds to the chill. Spring and autumn are mild and pleasant seasons with low humidity. The monsoon season usually starts in the first week of July and continues till August.
Thunderstorms are not uncommon during the Monsoon. The average annual rainfall is approximately 714 millimetres (28.1 in).
Gurgaon has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time period. Gurgaon’s skyline with its many skyscrapers is nationally recognized, and the city has been home to several tall buildings with modern planning. Gurgaon has an estimated 1,100 residential highrises. The average cost of a 93-square-metre (1,000 sq ft) two-bedroom apartment at a decent condominium in Gurgaon is at least $160,130 (₹10,000,000).
Notable performing art venues in the city include Epicentre in Sector 44 and Nautanki Mehal at the Kingdom of Dreams near IFFCO Chowk. Bollywood actor Rajkummar Rao was born in Gurgaon.
The main language spoken in Gurgaon is Hindi, though a segment of the population understands English. The dialect used in Hindi is similar to that of Delhi, and is considered neutral, though the regional influences from the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab adds an accent to the language. English is spoken with an Indian accent, with a primarily North Indian influence. Since Gurgaon has a large number of international call centres, the employees are usually given formal training in neutral pronunciation in order to be understandable to native English speakers. Haryanvi and Punjabi are other popular languages spoken in the city. The other regional languages include Mewati and Braj Bhasha.
Hinduism is a predominant religion among the city’s population. Gurgaon also includes adherents of Sikhism, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity and the Bahá’í, among others. There are several places of worship for major religions in Gurgaon, including Hindu temples, gurdwaras, mosques and churches.
Sheetla Mata Mandir is a famous temple located in district Gurgaon of Haryana state of India. It is a temple dedicated to the wife of Guru Dronacharya. The temple hosts fairs regularly and huge number of people come to seek blessings of Sheetla Mata every year.
The city’s public school system, managed by the government of Haryana, is administered by Haryana Board of School Education. The city also has a large number of private schools, where education is often expensive and the quality usually better than the government schools. Schools like The Shri Ram School – Aravali, the Ardee World School, Sector 52, The Heritage School, DAV Public School Sector 14 and Amity International School are among the top 10 schools in the city, according to the 2013 Hindustan Times – C fore Top Schools Survey.
There are several universities and institutes located in Gurgaon and its nearby areas, that form a part of Gurgaon district including Ansal Institute of Technology; ITM University, Sector 23A; GD Goenka University, Sohna Road; KR Mangalam University, Sohna Road; Amity University, Manesar; Apeejay Stya University, Sohna; BML Munjal University, NH8; Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University, Budhera; and National Brain Research Centre, Manesar. Gurgaon is also home to one of India’s top ranked business school, Management Development Institute.
Gurgaon railway station operated by Northern Railway of Indian Railways. The rail station that forms a part of the larger Indian railways network, where trains connect Gurgaon to Delhi and other important cities in India like Mumbai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad and Jaipur.
Gurgaon has many hospitals and a number of medical research facilities within its city limits. Some of the private hospital include Fortis Hospital, Medanta, Max Hospital and Columbia Asia Hospital. Gurgaon has become an increasingly popular destination for medical tourism.