Haryana is one of the 31 states in India, situated in North India. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on a linguistic basis. It stands 21st in terms of its area, which is spread about 44,212 km2 (17,070 sq mi).As of 2011 census of India, the state is eighteenth largest by population with 25,353,081 inhabitants.Haryana is one of the wealthier states of India and had the second highest per capita income in the country at 119158 (US$1,800) in the year 2012–13 and 132089 (US$2,000) in the year 2013–14,including the largest number of rural crorepatis in India.Haryana is also one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia, and its agricultural and manufacturing industries have experienced sustained growth since the 1970s.Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India.

In some ancient Hindu texts, the boundaries of Kurukshetra correspond roughly to the state of Haryana. Thus according to the Taittiriya Aranyaka 5.1.1., the Kurukshetra region is south of Turghna (Srughna/Sugh in Sirhind, Punjab), north of Khandava (Delhi and Mewat region), east of Maru (desert) and west of Parin.After ousting the Huns, king Harshavardhana established his capital at Thanesar near Kurukshetra in the 7th century AD. After his death, the kingdom of his clansmen, the Pratiharas ruled over a vast region for quite a while from Harsha’s adopted capital Kannauj. The region remained strategically important for the rulers of North India even though Thanesar was no more as central as Kannauj. Prithviraj Chauhan established forts at Taraori and Hansi in the 12th century. Muhammad Ghori conquered this area in the Second Battle of Tarain. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate was established that ruled much of India for several centuries. The earliest reference to ‘Hariana’ occurs in a Sanskrit inscription dated 1328 AD kept in Delhi Museum, which refers to this region as The heaven on earth, indicating that it was fertile and relatively peaceful at that time. Firoz Shah Tughlaq established a fort at Hisar in 1354 to further fortify the region, and also constructed canals or rajwahas as they were referred to in the Indo-Persian historical texts.
The three famous battles of Panipat took place near the modern town of Panipat. The first battle took place in 1526, where Babur, the ruler of Kabul defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate, through the use of field artillery. This battle marked the beginning of the Mughal empire in India. In the Second Battle of Panipat (November 5, 1556), Akbar’s general Bairam Khan defeated the local Haryanvi, who belonged to Rewari, the last Hindu emperor of India, Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya also called Hemu. Hemu rose from a businessman to become advisor to Afghan kings and then Prime Minister-cum-Chief of Army. He fought and won 22 battles in between 1553 to 1556, from Punjab to Bengal against Afghans and Mughals and won all of them without losing any. Hemu defeated Akbar’s army at Tughlaqabad in Delhi and became emperor of North India at Delhi on 7 October 1556 declaring him self as a Vikramaditya king following the reigns of earlier Vedic kings.[citation needed] and paved the way for Akbar’s reign. The Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau of Pune. Ahmad Shah won decisively, on January 13, 1761.
On 1 November 1966, Haryana was carved out on the basis of that the parts of Punjab which were to be Haryana’s “Hindi-speaking areas.”Same example was followed in creation of Himachal Pradesh as well. Haryana state was formed on the recommendation of the Sardar Hukam Singh Parliamentary Committee. The formation of this committee was announced in the Parliament on 23 September 1965.On 23 April 1966, acting on the recommendation of the Hukam Singh Committee, the Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice J. C. Shah, to divide and set up the boundaries of Punjab and Haryana.The commission gave its report on 31 May 1966. According to this report the then districts of Hissar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak, and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further the Tehsils of Jind (district Sangrur), Narwana (district Sangrur) Naraingarh, Ambala and Jagadhari of district Ambala were also included. The commission recommended that Tehsil Kharar (including Chandigarh) should also be a part of Haryana.

Blackbulk

The blackbuck,(Antilope cervicapra) also known as the Indian antelope, is an antelope commonly found in India. The blackbuck is the sole extant member of the genus Antilope. The species was first described by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in 1758. Two subspecies are recognised. It stands up to 74 to 84 cm (29 to 33 in) high at the shoulder. Males weigh 20–57 kilograms (44–126 lb), an average of 38 kilograms (84 lb). Females are lighter, weighing 20–33 kilograms (44–73 lb) or 27 kilograms (60 lb) on an average. The long, ringed horns, 35–75 centimetres (14–30 in) long, are generally present only on males, though females may develop horns as well. The white fur on the chin and around the eyes is in sharp contrast with the black stripes on the face. The coat of males shows two types of colouration: while the upper parts and outsides of the legs are dark brown to black, the underparts and the insides of the legs are all white. On the other hand, females and juveniles are yellowish fawn to tan.

Black francolin

The black francolin (Francolinus francolinus) is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. It was formerly known as the Black Partridge. It is the state bird of Haryana state, India.The head of the black francolin is curved with brown iris eyes color and unique pattern of brown color crown and the throat color is black. It has a length range of 33 to 36 cm and weight approximate about 453 g (16 oz) and the size of black francolin is 9 to 16 inches. The primary color is black with black breast rufous belly, white spots on flanks and golden brown spots at the back of body. The flight pattern of black francolin is short, direct flight punctuated by glides with rounded wings, rounded tail narrow black and white bars.

Peepal

Ficus religiosa or sacred fig is a species of fig native to Indian subcontinent, south-west China and Indochina. It belongs to the Moraceae, the fig or mulberry family. It is also known as the bodhi tree, pippala tree, peepal tree or ashwattha tree (in India and Nepal).

Lotus

Lotus Cars is a British manufacturer of sports and racing cars, famous for its Esprit, Elan, Europa and Elise sports cars and for the highly successful Team Lotus in Formula One. Lotus Cars is based at the former site of RAF Hethel, a World War II airfield in Norfolk. The company designs and builds race and production automobiles of light weight and fine handling characteristics.It also owns the engineering consultancy Lotus Engineering, which has facilities in the United Kingdom, United States, China, and Malaysia.

The Haryana and Delhi governments have constructed the 4.5-kilometre (2.8 mi) international standard Delhi Faridabad Skyway, the first of its kind in North India, to connect Delhi and Faridabad.The Delhi-Agra Expressway (NH-2) that passes through Faridabad is being widened to six lanes from current four lanes.It will further boost Faridabad’s connectivity with Delhi.Delhi Metro Rail Corporation connects Faridabad and Gurgaon with Delhi. Faridabad has the longest metro network in the NCR Region consisting of 9 stations and track length being 14 km.

Haryana has a total road length of 23,684 kilometres (14,717 mi). There are 29 national highways with a total length of 1,461 kilometres (908 mi) and many state highways, which have a total length of 2,494 kilometres (1,550 mi). The most remote parts of the state are linked with metaled roads. Its modern bus fleet of 3,864 buses covers a distance of 1.15 million km per day, and it was the first state in the country to introduce luxury video coaches.The Grand Trunk Road, commonly abbreviated to GT Road, is one of South Asia’s oldest and longest major roads. It passes through the districts of Sonipat, Panipat, Karnal, Kurukshetra and Ambala in north Haryana where it enters Delhi and subsequently the industrial town of Faridabad on its way. The state government proposes to construct Express highways and freeways for speedier vehicular traffic. The 135.6 kilometres (84.3 mi) Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP) will provide a high-speed link to northern Haryana with its southern districts such as Sonepat, Gurgaon, Jhajjar and Faridabad. The work on the project has already started and is scheduled to be completed by July 2013.Haryana State has always given high priority to the expansion of electricity infrastructure, as it is one of the most important inputs for the development of the state. Haryana was the first state in the country to achieve 100% rural electrification in 1970 as well as the first in the country to link all villages with all-weather roads and provide safe drinking water facilities throughout the state.

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Cuisine

Haryanvi cuisine is like the people of Haryana – simple, earthy and inextricably linked to the land. In Haryana, the emphasis is on food that is wholesome, fresh and prepared with little or no fuss at all. Food always evolves out of a certain cultural context. The simpler the culture or civilisation, so is the cuisine which is uncomplicated and essentially implies sustenance. Haryana with its essentially agrarian culture has retained simplicity in its cuisine.The ‘Land of Rotis’ is an apt title for Haryana, as people are fond of eating different kinds of rotis here. Wheat rotis are common and so are baajre ki roti. In earlier times, rotis would be made from a flour of wheat, gram and barley, a truly nutritious and healthy combination. Then there is the gochini atta made from wheat and gram flour. However with the rising price of gram and barley, people prefer the comparatively cheaper wheat flour, a loss both in terms of taste and nutrients.

Art & Crafts

Haryana being an agricultural state, women also work with men in the fields; hence crafts have not evolved into art forms and remain rooted to their original usage. Nevertheless, the arts and crafts never cease to fascinate the true art connoisseurs.Art and craft of Haryana mainly covers the range of pottery, embroidery and weaving. Colourful Phulkari dupatta of Haryana is famous in India and abroad. Art and craft of Haryana also include sculpture and murals both of Persian and Mughal style. Woven furniture, artistic sheet metal work, wooden bead making, zari & tilla jutti (leather footwear), lace work, bone carving, wood carving are some of the artistic craft that Haryana is known for.

Festivals

Teej is a generic name for a number of festivals that are celebrated in Nepal, Northern and Western India. Haryali Teej, Kajari Teej and Hartalika Teej welcome the monsoon season and are celebrated primarily by girls and women, with songs, dancing and prayer rituals.The monsoon festivals of Teej are primarily dedicated to Goddess Parvati and her union with Lord Shiva.Teej refers to the monsoon festivals, observed particularly in western and northern states of India and Nepal. The festivals celebrate the bounty of nature, arrival of clouds and rain, greenery and birds with social activity, rituals and customs.The festivals for women, include dancing, singing, getting together with friends and telling stories, dressing up with henna-coloured hands and feet, wearing red, green or yellow clothes, sharing festive foods,and playing under trees on swings on Haryali Teej.