Idukki is one of the 14 districts of Kerala state, India,created on 26 January 1972. At that time, the district headquarters was at Kottayam and was later moved to Painavu in June 1976. Idukki which lies in the Western Ghats of Kerala. Idukki is the second largest district in area but has the least population density. Idukki has a vast forest reserve area, more than a half of the district is covered by forests. The urban areas are thickly populated whereas villages are sparsely populated.
Idukki has an area of 4,479 km2 (1,729 sq mi) and is the second largest District of Kerala (the largest being Palakkad). Rugged mountains and forests cover about 97 percent of the total area of the District. The district borders the Kerala districts of Pathanamthitta to the south, Kottayam to the southwest, Ernakulam to the northwest and Thrissur to the north and Coimbatore, Dindigul and Theni Districts in Tamil Nadu to the east. The district is accessible only by road. Rail and airlink is not available. National Highway NH 49 and State highways 13 and 33 passes through the district.
Anamudi, the highest peak in India south of the Himalayas, is in the Kuttampuzha Panchayat of Adimali Block, in the Kannan Devan Hills Village of Devikulam taluk. Thirteen other peaks in the district exceed a height of 2,000 m (6,600 ft). The Periyar, Thodupuzhayar and Thalayar are the important rivers of the district. Idukki Dam, Asia’s largest Arch Dam is located at Idukki Township of Idukki Taluk. The point where the Periyar flows through the gorge formed between two high massive rocks known as “Kuravan” and “Kurathi” is the site of the Idukki arch dam.The Idukki Hydroelectic project caters for more than 60% of the power requirements of the state of Kerala.
According to the 2011 census Idukki district has a population of 1,107,453.This ranks it as 416th among the 640 districts of India. The district has a population density of 254 inhabitants per square kilometre (660/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was −1.93%. Idukki has a sex ratio of 1006 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 92.2 per cent.