Swietenia mahagoni, commonly known as the West Indian mahogany, is a species of Swietenia native to southern Florida in the United States and islands in the Caribbean including the Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Dominican Republic and Haiti .It is the species from which the original mahogany wood was produced.

Swietenia mahagoni is listed as “Threatened” in the Preservation of Native Flora of Florida Act.Its blossom is the national tree of the Dominican Republic.

Swietenia mahagoni is a medium-sized semi-evergreen tree growing to 30–35 metres (98–115 ft) tall. The leaves are pinnate, 12–25 centimetres (4.7–9.8 in) long, with four to eight leaflets, each leaflet 5–6 centimetres (2.0–2.4 in) long and 2–3 centimetres (0.79–1.18 in) broad; there is no terminal leaflet. The flowers are small, produced in panicles. The fruit is a woody capsule 5–10 centimetres (2.0–3.9 in) long and 3–6 centimetres (1.2–2.4 in) broad, containing numerous winged seeds.

The bark in younger specimens is smooth and grayish, becoming darker and furrowed with age. In the U.S. mahoganies are semi-deciduous, losing all or most of their leaves over winter or shedding at the flush of new growth in spring. New leaves emerge blood red to pinkish, quickly becoming a bright, light green and darkening as they mature.

It is also grown as an ornamental tree in subtropical and tropical regions.There has been some research into the acaricidal effects of its leaves and bark for control of the honey bee pest Varroa destructor.