jalandhar

Jalandhar (Punjabi Gurmukhi: ਜਲੰਧਰ), formerly Jullundur, is a city in the Doaba region of northwestern India state of Punjab.The oldest city in Punjab and one of the oldest in the country, Jalandhar has seen rapid urbanisation and developed into a highly industrialised centre of commercial activity in recent years. Jalandhar was the capital of Punjab from India’s independence (1947) until Chandigarh was built in 1953. On the Grand Trunk Road, it is a major rail and road junction and is 144 km northwest of the state capital, Chandigarh. The city was known as Jullundur in British India.

In ancient time, the district comprised the whole of the Upper Doabas from Ravi River to Sutlej River. The city[4] is named after Jalandhar, a demon king, who is mentioned in the Puranas and Mahabharta. According to another legend, Jalandhar was the capital of the kingdom of Lava (Ramayana), son of Rama. According to another version Jalandhar is said to have derived its name from the vernacular term `Jalandhar’ means area inside the water, i.e., tract lying between the two rivers Satluj and Beas. Another name was Trigartta which was ruled by the Katoch Dynasty, as it was waters by three rivers, Satluj, Beas and Ravi. The whole of Punjab and the area of present Jalandhar District was part of the Indus Valley Civilization. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro are the sites where remains of the Indus Valley Civilization have been found extensively. The archaeological explorations made during recent years have pushed the ancient times of Jalandhar District of Harappa period.

The modern history of Jalandhar District states that Khilafat Movement was started in the district in early 1920 to bring pressure upon British rulers to change their policy towards Turkey. Mahatma Gandhi extended sympathy and support to this movement. Jalandhar District was declared ‘Proclaimed Area’ under the Seditious Meetings Act. After the independence of the country, however, the district was affected by communal riots and exodus of minority communities from both sides of the border, consequent upon the partition of the country.

The city has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters and hot summers. Summers last from April to June and winters from November to February. Temperatures in the summer vary from average highs of around 48 °C (118 °F) to average lows of around 25 °C (77 °F). Winter temperatures have highs of 19 °C (66 °F) to lows of −7 °C (19 °F). The climate is dry on the whole, except during the brief southwest monsoon season during July and August. The average annual rainfall is about 70 cm.

Doordarshan Kendra, Jalandhar is an Indian television station in Jalandhar, owned and operated by state-owned Doordarshan, the television network of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India).[9] It was established in 1979 and produces and broadcasts the 24-hour Punjabi language TV channel, DD Punjabi, which was launched in 1998 and covers most of the state of Punjab, India.The city is the region’s headquarters for newspapers, national television and radio stations. These include Daily Ajit, Jagbani, Punjab Kesari, Dainik Jagran, Hindustan Times, The Tribune, Dainik Bhaskar, Hind Samachar, etc.

As per provisional data of 2011 census Jalandhar had a population of 873,725, of which 463,975 were male and 409,750 female. The literacy rate was 85.46 per cent.