Jalgaon district is a district of Maharashtra, India. It was formerly known as East Khandesh district, prior to 21 October 1960, It has an area of 11,765 km², and a population of 3,682,690 (2001 census) of which 71.4% were living in rural areaa.

It is bounded by Madhya Pradesh state to the north, and by the districts of Buldhana to the east, Jalna to the southeast, Aurangabad to the south, Nashik to the southwest, and Dhule to the west.

The present territory of the district was part of the independent Khandesh Sulatanate ruled by the Faruqi dynasty from 1382-1601. It was previously part of Khandesh. According to Abul Fazal (Gladwin’s Aine Akbari 1157), the name Khandesh is derived from the Khan title given by Ahmad-I of Gujarat (1411-1443) to Malik Nasir, the second of the Faruki kings. According to some sources, the name comes from the Khandava forest of Mahabharata.

The Mahabharata mentions Yuvanshava, the ruler of Toranmal (Nandurbar district) as fighting with the Pandavas. The rock temples and caves at Nashik and Ajanta show that during the first three centuries AD, Khandesh was under the rulers who supported Buddhism. Thereafter, it was ruled by Saptavananas, Andhrabhrityas, Virsen (Ahir King), Yawan dynasty, Chalukyas, Yadavas and then Alaud-din Khilji, Mohammad Tughlak, Malik Raja Malik Nazir, the Nizam of Hyderabad, and subsequently the Marathas ruled the region.

In Jalgaon Tapi(Surya-Putri;west flowing river)river flowing from the northernmost side. Its total length is 724 km and in Maharashtra its length is 208 km. Girana river is also a long river in Jalgaon.The Gazetteer of the Bombay presidency describes the river as… “Rising in the western hills of the Kalvan sub-division of Nasik, and fed by streams from the northern slopes of the Chandor or Saptashring range, after a course of about 150 miles, falls into the Tapti near Nander. Its course lies in nearly equal parts in Nasik and Khandesh. Passing through Nasik almost in a straight line eastwards, in Khandesh its course changes to north-east, till, near Jalgaon, it bends north and then north-west flowing for several miles with many windings almost parallel to the Tapti. In Khandesh, except in one or two places where it is hemmed in by rocky hills, the Girna, over a broad sandy bed, flows through a well tilled valley gradually spreading into the great central plain. Its waters, both in Nasik and Khandesh, are much used for irrigation. In Nasik lately repaired dams and channels water many of its upland valleys, and in Khandesh, from Eahal about ten miles north of Chalisgaon, the Jamda canals stretch east for about twenty-seven miles on the left and twelve miles on the right bank.

According to the 2011 census Jalgaon district has a population of 4,224,442, roughly equal to the Republic of the Congo or the US state of Kentucky.This gives it a ranking of 46th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 359 inhabitants per square kilometre (930/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 14.71%.Jalgaon has a sex ratio of 922 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 79.73%.

Languages spoken include Ahirani, a Kandeshi tongue with approximately 780 000 speakers, similar to Marathi and Bhili; Bareli Palya, a Bhil language with approximately 10 000 speakers centred in Madhya Pradesh; and Bareli Rathwi, another Bhil language with approximately 64 000 speakers, written in the Devanagari script and mutually unintelligible with Bareli Palya.

North Maharashtra University was established in Jalgaon on 15 August 1989. There are schools and colleges of Khandesh Education Society and Maratha Vidya Prasarak Mandal as well.