Jamnagar is a city located on the western coast of India in the state of Gujarat in the Gulf of Kutch.It is the administrative headquarters of the Jamnagar District. Jamnagar is the sixth largest city in the Indian state of Gujarat behind Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara, Rajkot and Bhavnagar. Jamnagar is the largest city on the western most side of India.
The Modern look of the city was initially given by Jam Saheb Shri Ranjitsinhji, who actual built the city with all the modern infrastructure of that era was done during his reign during 1920s, the city was thereafter substantially developed by Jam Saheb Shri Digvijaysinhji Ranjitsinhji in the 1940s, when it was part of the Princely state of Nawanagar. The city lies just to the south of the Gulf of Kutch, some 337 kilometres (209 mi) west of the state capital, Gandhinagar.
World’s largest petroleum company, Reliance Industries, has established the world’s largest oil refinery near the village of Moti Khavdi in Jamnagar district. The Essar Oil refinery is located in the nearby town of Vadinar.
Nawanagar was founded by Jam Sri Rawalji in 1540 as the capital of the eponymous Princely state. Jamnagar, historically known as Nawanagar (the new town), was one of the most important and the largest Princely states of the Jadejas in the Saurashtra region. It was a 13 gun salute state. According to Pauranik literature, Lord Krishna established his kingdom at Dwarka town in Jamnagar district, after migrating from Mathura, and accordingly, it is to the Yadava race that the Jams of Nawanagar trace their ancestry.
According to historical records, Bahadurshah, the emperor of Gujarat, bestowed upon Jam Lakhaji twelve villages in recognition of his role in the siege of Pawagadh. Jam Lakhaji, however, was killed by his cousins, Tamachi Deda and Jam Hamirji Jadeja, after he took possession of the villages. His son, Jam Rawal, thereafter murdered his father’s killers and became ruler of Cutch.
Jamnagar has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSh). There are three defined seasons. The “hot” season lasts from March to May and is extremely hot and humid, before giving way to the “wet” season with extremely erratic monsoonal rainfall that averages around 630 millimetres (25 in) but has varied from less than 100 millimetres (3.9 in) in 1911 and 1939 to over 1,500 millimetres (59.1 in) for the district in 2010. Tropical cyclones sometimes affect the region during this period. The “cool” season from October to February remains hot during the day but has negligible rainfall, low humidity and cool nights, so it is by far the most comfortable time of year.
The highest recorded temperature was 47 °C (117 °F) on May 5, 1990, while the lowest recorded temperature was 1 °C (34 °F) on February 5, 1984.
At the time of the 2011 Indian census, Jamnagar had a population of 479,920, and its urban agglomeration 600,943. Jamnagar has an average literacy rate of 82.14%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 86.90%, and female literacy is 77.05%. In Jamnagar, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. In 2011, the sex ratio in Jamnagar was 939 females per 1000 males. The urban development authority of Jamnagar is Jamnagar Area Development Authority (JADA).
Most residents of Jamnagar are Gujarati and speak the Gujarati language. A small portion of the population speak the Kutchi language, which is written in the Gujarati script but not mutually intelligible with Gujarati. The Kathiawadi language (which is a colloquial dialect of Gujarati) is widely used for day-to-day communication. Major communities include the Jadeja, Satvaras (Dalvadis), Ahirs (Yadav), Patels, Bhanushalis, Rajputs, Mers, Jains, Lohanas, Brahmins, Bhoi(Bhoiraj) and Vaghers (Muslim and Hindu), and Khavas (Sorathiya).
The city has an airport (IATA: JGA – ICAO: VAJM) with direct flights to Mumbai. The airport is a military enclave of the Indian Air force which allows commercial flights.
Jamnagar has a railway station connected with a variety of destinations across India. Jamnagar has 4 daily trains to Mumbai and weekly trains to the major cities of north, east and south of country.
There are daily Private coaches running between Jamnagar and Bhuj, Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara, Mumbai, Pune many other major cities of Gujarat by various operators. Apart from State Transport who has bus services to almost all small & big towns of Gujarat State.
The Jamnagar Municipal Corporation runs local buses in the city. Also auto rickshaws are available everywhere. Recently, Ola Cabs has started its operations here along with Taxi for Sure.
Jamnagar has many schools including private, government granted schools. The M.P.Shah Medical College is considered to be one of the top colleges in India for Medical studies. The Gujarat Ayurved University in Jamnagar is considered to be the best university in the world for Ayurvedic studies & has students from all around the globe. Besides this, there are several colleges for arts, commerce and science.
Jamnagar has a few single screen cinemas, as well as several multiplex cinemas, one near Samarpan Hospital and one in the Reliance Mart 30 km from the city. The city’s town hall is used for local cultural programs, shows and plays. Recently, a new mall has been built on the aerodrome road called Crystal Mall.