Jharkhand is a state in eastern India carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi). The city of Ranchi is its capital while the industrial city of Jamshedpur is the most populous city of the state.
According to writers including Gautam Kumar Bera,there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the Magadha Empire. Bera’s book (page 33) also refers to the Hindu epic Bhavishya Purana. The tribal rulers, some of whom continue to thrive till today were known as the Munda Rajas,who basically had ownership rights to large farmlands.Many scholars now believe that the language used by tribes in the state of Jharkhand is identical to the one used by Harappan people. This has led to interest in deciphering Harappa inscriptions using rock paintings and language used by these tribes. For a greater part of Vedic age, Jharkhand remained unnoticed. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent. In those days the northern portion of Jharkhand state was a tributary state of Magadha (ancient Bihar) Empire and southern part was a tributary of Kalinga (ancient Odisha) Empire.
After the last Assembly election in the state threw up a hung Assembly, RJD’s dependence on the Congress extended support on the precondition that RJD will not pose a hurdle to the passage of the Bihar Reorganization Bill (Jharkhand Bill). Finally, with the support from both RJD and Congress, the ruling coalition at the Centre led by the BJP which has made statehood its mail poll plank in the region in successive polls earlier, cleared the Jharkhand Bill in the monsoon session of the Parliament this year, thus paving the way for the creation of a separate Jharkhand state.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea. Two species are traditionally recognised, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), although some evidence suggests that African bush elephants and African forest elephants are separate species.Elephants are scattered throughout sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Elephantidae is the only surviving family of the order Proboscidea; other, now extinct, members of the order include deinotheres, gomphotheres, mammoths, and mastodons. Male African elephants are the largest extant terrestrial animals and can reach a height of 4 m (13 ft) and weigh 7,000 kg (15,000 lb). All elephants have several distinctive features, the most notable of which is a long trunk or proboscis, used for many purposes, particularly breathing, lifting water and grasping objects.
The true koels, Eudynamys, are a genus of cuckoos from Asia, Australia and the Pacific. They are large sexually dimorphic cuckoos which eat fruits and insects and have loud distinctive calls. They are brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other species.In New Zealand the long-tailed koel is known as the long-tailed cuckoo. Two other species, the white-crowned koel and the dwarf koel, are also known as koels but are in their own monotypic genera.
Shorea robusta, also known as śāl, sakhua or shala tree, is a species of tree belonging to the Dipterocarpaceae family.This tree is native to the Indian subcontinent, ranging south of the Himalaya, from Myanmar in the east to Nepal, India and Bangladesh. In India, it extends from Assam, Bengal, Odisha and Jharkhand west to the Shivalik Hills in Haryana, east of the Yamuna. The range also extends through the Eastern Ghats and to the eastern Vindhya and Satpura ranges of central India.It is often the dominant tree in the forests where it occurs. In Nepal, it is found mostly in the terai region from east to west, especially, in the Churia range (the Shivalik Hill Churia Range) in the subtropical climate zone. There are many protected areas, such as Chitwan National Park, Bardia National Park and Shukla Phat Wildlife Reserve, where there are dense forests of huge sal trees. It is also found in the lower belt of the hilly region and inner terai.
Butea monosperma is a species of Butea native to tropical and sub-tropical parts of the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia, ranging across India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, and western Indonesia.Common names include flame-of-the-forest and bastard teak.It is a medium-sized dry season-deciduous tree, growing to 15 m tall. It is a slow growing tree, young trees have a growth rate of a few feet per year. The leaves are pinnate, with an 8–16 cm petiole and three leaflets, each leaflet 10–20 cm long. The flowers are 2.5 cm long, bright orange-red, and produced in racemes up to 15 cm long. The fruit is a pod 15–20 cm long and 4–5 cm broad.
The Transport Department of Jharkhand is a major revenue earning department. The aim of the Department is to evolve a cost efficient revenue generating system. Transport and Communication related activities are important in respect to Service Sector outcome. Smooth movement of public goods and hassle free public transport system is the backbone of modern and better administered state. A modern transportation system works as catalyst for growth oriented public economy and utility services. The Transport Department of Jharkhand is striving to promote road infrastructure support for transportation of goods and passenger, to promote public transport and advanced quality of service, to promote modern, energy-efficient and environment, & eco-friendly surface transport system and to promote road safety and modern traffic management.
At National level population of vehicles ratio is 83 : 1, whereas in Jharkhand State this ration is 100 : 1. The Transport Department is trying to achieve the National ratio regarding vehicles availability. The population of Jharkhand State is about 3 crores and the density of population is 338 persons per square K.M. There are 24 districts in the State out of which Ranchi, Dhanbad, Bokaro, Jamshedpur, Hazaribagh and Giridih are more densely populated in comparison to the other district township. The services of buses provided by Urban Development Department are being utilised under the permits issued by the Regional Offices of Transport Department in big town such as Ranchi, Jamshedpur and Dhanbad. In addition to this a large number of small vehicles such as Auto Rickshaws, Taxi and Other contract carriages are also being plied by the private operators which is enough according to the density of population in these three towns. On the National Highway in the State of Jharkhand bus services are available at the interval of 5 to 10 minutes. Besides bus services a large number of small vehicles such as trekker, maxi cab and omni buses up to 22 seats are also available in sufficient number in each district of the State which used to ply on the National Highway and each district head quarter to the different connecting routes of remote areas. Likewise buses are also available from district headquarters to the different tribal areas.
Jharkhand cuisine encompasses the cuisine of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Jharkhandi and Bihari cuisine are often similar, in part because these separate states were at one time the single state of Bihar.The states were separated in 2000, whereby an area of southern Bihar became Jharkhand.Jharkhandi cuisine may also be similar to the cuisine styles of other nearby areas, yet also has dishes that are traditional to the region.The cuisine has both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes.Common meals often consist of vegetables that are cooked in various ways, such as curried, fried, roasted and boiled.Traditional dishes, such as Jharkhand tribal food, may not be available at Jharkhandi restaurants.However, on a visit to a tribal village or a tribal wedding in a remote area, one can get a chance to taste such exotic foods. Some dish preparations may be mild with a low oil and spice content, although pickles and festive dishes may have such characteristics.
Jharkhand’s music tradition consists of various tribal forms and is known for its diversity. Among the more popular is jhumar which is always accompanied by dance.Jharkhandi Tribals are very fond of dance and music. There are about 64 seasonal dance forms and numerous ragas in Oraon tribe itself. It is as such that the raga in which song is sung cannot be repeated after a week or so. In major tribes, dance is performed in Akhra and nobody in the community can dance solo.
Indian folk and tribal dances are simple dances, and are performed to express joy and happiness among themselves. Folk and tribal dances are performed for every possible occasion, to celebrate the arrival of seasons, birth of a child, a wedding and festivals. The dances are extremely simple with minimum of steps or movement. The dances burst with verve and vitality. Men and women perform some dances exclusively, while in some performances men and women dance together. On most occasions, the dancers sing themselves, while being accompanied by artists on the instruments. Each form of dance has a specific costume. Most costumes are flamboyant with extensive jewels. While there are numerous ancient folk and tribal dances, many are constantly being improved. The skill and the imagination of the dances influence the performance.
Jharkhand originally a tribal state is known for its wood work, bamboo works, pitkar paintings, tribal ornaments and stone carving. The beautifully carved wood products and bamboo products show the craftsmanship of the people. Lack of promotion and marketing for these products has mostly resulted in extinction of some crafts like paitkar paintings and stone carvings.Once a dense forest area, Jharkhand with the abundance of wood, resulted in the use this for creating variety of wood articles for household requirements. The artisans of the region were involved in beautifully designing different articles of household use. These include door panels, boxes and windows besides wooden spoons etc. These carved and designed articles are beautiful and has good market both in India and abroad.The bamboos found in the Jharkhand forest are thin but flexible and strong. Using these, the artisans of Jharkhand produce different artifacts like basket, haunting and fishing equipment.