Kasaragod District is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala, India. Kasaragod became part of Kannur district, Kerala following the reorganisation of states and formation of Kerala in November 1, 1956.Kasaragod was declared as a district on 24 May 1984. Now Kasaragod is the northernmost and also the last (14th) district in the State; comprising Kasaragod, Manjeswar ,Vellarikundu and Hosdurg taluks.
Kasaragod is world-renowned for its coir and hand-loom industries. It is a region where three ‘dream-lands’ Kerala, Tulunadu and Coorg meet. The district has a coastline of around 29.3 kilometers and a very vast midland. It also consists of high mountain ranges like the Ranipuram-Kottencheri belt. The district is filled with rivers, hillocks, beaches, shrines and forts. Kasaragod District is unique for its linguistic culture is also known as “Sapthabhasha Sangamabhoomi” as seven major languages are spoken here.
Kasaragod has also been fatally affected by indiscriminate use of the pesticide Endosulphan. Its a challenge of this district.
Kasaragod was known to the Arabs by the name Harkwillia.Many Arab travelers who visited Kerala between the 9th and the 14th centuries visited Kasaragod, which was an important trade centre then. Duarte Borbosa, the Portuguese traveler who visited Kumbla, near Kasaragod in 1514, recorded rice being exported for coir to Maldives.
Kasaragod was part of the kumbala Kingdom in which there were 64 Tulu and Malayalam villages.When the Vijayanagara empire attacked Kasaragod, it was still under the Kolathiri Raja who had Nileshwaram as one of his capitals. During the decline of the Vijayanagara empire, the administration of this area was vested with Ikkeri Nayakas.At the onset of collapse of the Vijayanagara empire, Venkappa Nayaka declared independence to Ikkery. Kumbla, Chandragiri and Bekal are considered to be the chain of forts constructed or renovated by Shivappa Nayaka.
Francis Buccanan, the family doctor of Arthur Wellesley, visited Kasargod in 1800.In his travelogue, he recorded information on places like Athiraparambu, Kavvai, Nileshwaram, Bekal, Chandragiri and Manjeshwaram.In 1763, Hyder Ali conquered Bedanoor (Bidnur), the capital of the Ikkery Naiks. His son Tippu Sultan conquered much of Malabar. As per the Sreerangapattanam Treaty of 1792, Tippu surrendered Malabar, except Tulunadu (Canara) to the British. The British got Tulunadu only after the death of Tippu Sultan.it is said that Kinavoor Molom (Sree Dharma Shashtha Temple)is belonging to Karinthalam (one among 64 Brahmin Villages in old Kerala)
The district is the northernmost district of the State of Kerala. Kasaragod is located at 12.5°N 75.0°E.It has an average elevation of 19 metres (62 feet).The landscape is dominated by the characteristic coconut palms accompanying rolling hills and streams flowing into the sea. The landscape is dotted with tiled-roof buildings, topped with the famous Kasaragod tiles made with the local hard red clay and typically walled with laterite blocks. Older houses are commonly found with elaborate woodwork.
According to the 2011 census Kasaragod district has a population of 1,307,375, roughly equal to the nation of Mauritius or the US state of New Hampshire.This gives it a ranking of 375th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 654 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,690/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 8.18%.Kasaragod has a sex ratio of 1079 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 89.85%.
The National Highway 66(formerly NH17) enters Kerala in Kunjathur of Kasargod district, through which major towns in the district are connected to Mangalore. The highway form a backbone of the road network for the district from Talapady, covering major towns like Uppala, Kasaragod, Kanhangad, Nileshwar, Cheruvathur and Trikaripur. The NH exits the district in Kalikadavu (Pilicode) which ends at Edappally.