Kolar

Kolar district is a district in Karnataka state of India. The town of Kolar is the district headquarters. Kolar district is located in the southern region of the State and is the easternmost district of the Karnataka State. The district is bounded by the Bangalore Rural district in the west Chikballapur district in the north, Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh in the east and on the south by Krishnagiri and Vellore district of Tamil Nadu.

On 10 September 2007, Kolar district was bifurcated to form the new district of Chikballapur. Due to the modern discovery of the Kolar Gold Fields, Kolar has become popularly known as the “Golden Land” of India.

Formerly, Kolar was known variously as Kolahala, Kuvalala and Kolala. Kolar was called Kolahalapura during the Middle Ages, but later came to be known as Kolar. Kolahahapura in Kannada meant “violent city”, as it was the battlefield for the warring kingdoms of Chalukyas in the north and Cholas to the south. It was the capital of the Gangas until the 4th century AD when they shifted the capital to Talakad in Mysore. In 1004 AD, the Cholas annexed Kolar until 1116 AD,. Vishnuvardhana (1108-1142 AD) freed Gangavadi from the Cholas, and in commemoration of his victory, built the celebrated Vijayanarayana Temple (Chennakesava Temple) at Belur.

The major and important temples in the town are Kolaramma Temple and Someshwara Temple. The Kolaramma temple is of Dravida Vimana style built in Ganga tradition in the 2nd century CE and dedicated to goddess Shakti. The temple was later renovated during the period of the teja arun Chola monarch Rajendra Chola I in the 10th century and Vijayanagara kings in the 15th century. Someswara Temple is a fine example of 14th century Vijayanagara art.

The major sources of employment are agriculture, dairy and sericulture, floriculture hence it is popularly known as the land of “Silk, Milk and Gold”. Farmers in Kolar are totally dependent upon borewell water for irrigation and drinking.

The gold mines in Kolar Gold Fields were closed in the 2003 due to reducing gold deposits and increasing costs of production.

National Highway NH-4pass through via Narasapura, Kolar, Mulbagal in Kolar district, State Highway connects other taluks. Small Village and others roads are also present connects District headquarters and taluks. National Highway NH-4 starts from Bangalore East, Narasapura, Kolar, Mulbagal, Chittor from here one way goes to Thirupathi(this way is not NH-4) and another to Chennai

Bangalore to Mulbagal having four-lane Road (NH-4) travel time is around 90 minutes. motorists can look forward to a six-lane highway from K R Puram to Hoskote and from there onwards a four-lane one up to Mulbagal. An additional benefit is that Bangalore east residents can use it as an alternative route to reach the airport by taking the left at Boodigere Cross that leads to Devanahalli.

According to the 2011 census Kolar district has a population of 1,540,231, roughly equal to the nation of Gabon or the US state of Hawaii. This gives it a ranking of 324th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 384 inhabitants per square kilometre (990/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 11.04%. Kolar has a sex ratio of 976 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 74.33%

As a district on the cross-roads of the three states, Kolar is home to many communities and represents a mini-India. The primary language spoken here is Kannada. Other widely spoken language is Urdu. There are also good number of Tamil and Telugu speakers.

Kolar Gold Fields (KGF) is a town in Kolar district which was once the primary gold mines in the country. Set up by the British, this town which is close to the border of Andhra Pradesh and has Tamil,Telugu and Anglo-Indian Population.