Kozhikode District is a district of Kerala state, situated on the southwest coast of India. The city of Kozhikode, formerly known as Calicut, is the district headquarters. The district is 38.25% urbanised.
Kozhikode district is bordered by the districts of Kannur to the north, Wayanad to the east, and Malappuram to the south. The Arabian Sea lies to the west. It is situated between latitudes 11° 08’N and 11° 50’N and longitudes 75° 30’E and 76° 8’E.
In 2001 the district was divided into four talukas: Kozhikode, Vadakara, Koyilandy and Thamarassery; however, by the 2011 census there are twelve block panchayats: Balusseri, Chelannur, Koduvally, Kozhikode, Kunnamangalam, Kunnummal, Melady, Panthalayani, Perambraa, Thodannur, Thuneri, and Vadakara.
The history of the district is inevitably intertwined with the history of the city of Kozhikode. Calicut is the anglicized form of Kalikooth, the name used by Arabs to refer to Kozhikode. It was also called the Cock Fort, a usage that may have come from kozhi (Rooster) kodu (fortified). According to the historian K.V. Krishnan Iyer, the word Kozhikode is derived from koyil (palace) kodu (fortified), meaning ‘Fortified Palace’.
The ports of the Malabar Coast have participated in the Indian Ocean trade of spices, silk, and other goods for over two millennia. Kozhikode emerged as the centre of an independent kingdom in the 14th century, whose ruler was known as the Zamorin.
The district has a generally humid climate with a very hot season extending from March to May. The rainy season is during the South West Monsoon, which sets in the first week of June and extends up to September. The North East Monsoon extends from the second half of October through November. The average annual rainfall is 3266 mm. The best weather is found in towards the end of the year, in December and January — the skies are clear, and the air is crisp. The highest temperature recorded was 39.4 °C in March 1975. The lowest was 14 °C recorded on 26 December 1975.
According to the 2011 census Kozhikode district has a population of 3,089,543,roughly equal to the nation of Mongolia or the US state of Iowa.This gives it a ranking of 115th in India (out of a total of 640).Among this the population of the Hindus increased to 17,34,958 (males: 8,37,824, females: 8,97,134) from the figure of 16,69,161 in the 2001 census. Muslim population grew to 12,11,131 (males: 5,64,489: females: 6,46,642) from the 2001 figure of 10,78,759 while the Christian population stood at 1,31,516 (males: 64,367 and females: 67,149). Its population a decade ago was 1,27, 468. The district has a population density of 1,318 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,410/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 7.31%.Kozhikode has a sex ratio of 1097 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 95.24%.
The centuries of trade across the Indian Ocean has given Kozhikode a cosmopolitan population. Hindus constitute the majority of the population, followed by the Mappila or Muslims and the Christians. Christianity is believed to have been introduced in Kerala in 52 CE, and the Christian population expanded with the presence of the Portuguese, Dutch, and British starting in the 16th century.