Kurnool is city and the headquarters of Kurnool district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.The city is often referred as The Gateway of Rayalaseema.It was the capital of Andhra State from 1 October 1953 to 31 October 1956. As of 2011 census, it is the fifth most populous city in the state with a population of 460,184.

Little was known about Kurnool Town before the 11th century. The earliest knowledge of this settlement dates from the 11th century. It has developed as transit place on the southern banks of the river Tungabhadra. It was ruled by Cholas and later by Kakatiya kings in the 12th and 13th centuries. Later on it became an independent part of the country under Jagirdars. Late it came under the influence of Vijayanagar kings and it was during the 16th century that Achyuta Raya built the Kurnool Fort. During the 17th century it was ruled by Gopal Raja. Abdul Wahab conquered king Gopal Raja and ruled over the country for 16 years. The town came under the influence of Moghal emperor Aurangazeb in 1686. Later the town was ruled by Nawabs from Dawood Khan to Gulam Rasool Khan (1823). In 1839 the British Government took over control. In 1858 it was made over to a Collector under the General regulations.

Kurnool is located at 15.8333°N 78.05°E.It has an average elevation of 273 metres (898 feet).Kurnool lies on the banks of the Tungabhadra River. The Hundri and Neeva rivers also flow through the city. The K.C. Canal (Kurnool–Cuddapah) was built by the Dutch for transportation, but later used for irrigation.The climate is tropical with temperatures ranging from 26 °C (78.8 °F) to 46 °C (114.8 °F) in the summer and 12 °C (53.6 °F) to 31 °C (87.8 °F) in the winter. The average annual rainfall is about 705 millimetres (28 in).

As per final data of 2011 census, Kurnool urban agglomeration had a population of 484,327. The literacy rate was 77.37 per cent.

It is the headquarters of the mandal, the revenue division and the district of the same name. From 1 October 1953 to 31 October 1956, Kurnool was also the state capital of Andhra State (not Andhra Pradesh), which was carved out of Madras State in 1953. Tanguturi Prakasam was the chief minister of Andhra State during this period. The present day District court buildings were used by the State Assembly.

State owned bus transport system, APSRTC, operates buses from Kurnool bus station to other parts of the state.National Highway 7 (India) connects Kurnool to Hyderabad. The State Highway 51 connects to Srisailam, Vinukonda, Guntur, Vijayawada. National Highway 18 runs from Kurnool to Chittoor. Kurnool railway station lies on the Hyderabad – Guntakal railway line.

Kurnool is endowed with good mineral resources. The important minerals are Iron ore , Dolomite,lime stone, ochre, quartz stealite and silica.Landmarks in and around the city include Konda Reddy Fort (or Kondareddy Burj) is the remnant of Kurnool fort on the north east part of the city.Orvakal rock Garderns with a cave museum lies on the south east of the city.