Madhepura district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India, and Madhepura town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Madhepura district is a part of Kosi division.

Being carved out of Saharsa district, Madhepura got the status of revenue district on 9 May 1981. Prior to that Madhepura was a sub-division under Bhagalpur district with effect from 3 September 1845. Subsequently, it was on 1 April 1954 that Saharsa district was carved out of Bhagalpur district.

Madhepura district occupies an area of 1,788 square kilometres (690 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to Russia’s Bolshoy Shantar Island.Madhepura district is surrounded by Araria and Supaul district in the north, Khagaria and Bhagalpur district in the south, Purnia district in the east and Saharsa district in the West. It is situated in the Plains of River Koshi and located in the Northeastern part of Bihar at latitude between 25°. 34 to 26°.07′ and longitude between 86° .19′ to 87°.07′.

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Madhepura one of the country’s 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).

According to the 2011 census Madhepura district has a population of 1,994,618, roughly equal to the nation of Slovenia.This gives it a ranking of 232nd in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 1,116 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,890/sq mi) .Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 30.65%.Madhepura has a sex ratio of 914 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 53.78%.