Malappuram district, with its headquarters at Malappuram, is a district in the state of Kerala, India. The district was formed on 16 June 1969. Malappuram district is composed of portions of the former Palakkad and Kozhikode districts: Ernad taluk and portions of Tirur taluk in Kozhikode district, and portions of Perinthalmannna and Ponnani taluks in Palakkad district.
Historically a stronghold of orthodox Brahminical Hinduism many famous scholars like Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri who composed the Narayaneeyam in sanskrit ,poonthanamnamboodiri and Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan came from Malappuram,the ancient Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics though mainly centred in Thrissur also had namboodiri and nair scholars coming from malappuram,Today The district includes Thirunavaya, the classic medieval center of Vedic learning; Kottakkal, home of Ayurveda medicine; islam came to malappuram early on but initially failed to take root in the region,however following the collapse of the zamorins empire in northern Kerala and due to the Muslim Mysorean invasion of Kerala the demographics of the district changed,most of the Nair and namboodiri population of the region moved towards southern kerala following the invasion,leaving behind a vast Muslim population that has survived to this day,Ponnani, one of the oldest centres of Islamic education in the region is located here. In 1921 the present-day Malappuram district was part of the Moplah rebellions, followed by decades of stagnant economic, social and political development. In the early years of Communist rule in Kerala, Malappuram experienced land reform under the Land Reform Ordinance. During the 1970s Persian Gulf oil reserves were opened to commercial extraction, and thousands of unskilled workers migrated to the Gulf. They sent money home, supporting the rural economy, and by the late 20th century the region had First World health standards and near-universal literacy.
Malappuram district contains abundant wildlife and a number of small hills, forests, rivers and streams flowing to the west, backwaters and paddy, arecanut, cashew nut, pepper, ginger, pulses, coconut, banana, tapioca, and rubber plantations. Malappuram is one of two Muslim-majority districts in south India. The Hindu temples and Moplah mosques of the region are known for their colorful festivals, and it is the most populous district in Kerala.Religions practised in the district include Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism and tribal religions.
Malappuram, meaning “terraced place atop the hills”, derives from the geography of the district headquarters. Before the district’s formation, the region was known as Eranad, Valluvanad, Vettathunad etc.
The district has a rich cultural and political heritage. The port of Ponnani (roughly identified with Tyndis) was a centre of trade with Ancient Rome. After the Chera Dynasty a number of dynasties controlled the area, and by the ninth century the region was ruled by the Kulasekharas of Mahodayapuram. After the disintegration of the Kulasekhara kingdom a number of Nair city-states emerged, including Valluvanad, Vettattunadu (Tanur), Parappanad and Nediyiruppu (ruled by the Zamorins). During the 13th century, the Samoothiri of Calicut expanded their territories to Malabar. Thirunavaya, the seat of Mamankam, was in Malappuram district.
The district, in northern Kerala, is bounded on the north by Wayanad and Kozhikkode districts, on the northeast by Tamil Nadu, on the southeast and south by Palakkad District, on the southwest by Thrissur District, on the west by the Arabian Sea and on the northwest by Kozhikode District.
In the 2011 census the district had a population of 4,112,920, roughly equal to that of New Zealand and the US state of Oregon.Malappuram is the 50th-most-populous of India’s 640 districts, with a population density of 1,158 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,000/sq mi).Its population-growth rate from 2001 to 2011 was 13.39 percent.Malappuram has a sex ratio of 1096 women to 1000 men, and its literacy rate is 93.55 percent.