Mathura District situated along the banks of the river Yamuna is a district of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. The historic town of Mathura is the district headquarters. The District is part of Agra division. Mathura is bounded on the northeast by Aligarh District, on the southeast by Hathras District, on the south by Agra District, and on the west by Rajasthan and northwest by Haryana state. Mathura district is an important pilgrimage centre of Hindus.

According to the 2011 census Mathura district has a population of 2,541,894, roughly equal to the nation of Kuwait or the US state of Nevada.This gives it a ranking of 167th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 761 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,970/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 22.53%.Mathura has a sex ratio of 858 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 72.65%.Mathura is a yadav dominated region with around 3 lakh yadav.Mathura receives a large number of daily visitors besides pilgrims who stay for an average of 3 days. Mathura’s urban area’s floating population on normal days is between 100,000 to 125,000 per day, whereas on festive and auspicious days it is over twice the population of urban area.

People in Mathura and nearby areas speak Braj. Braj Bhasha, also called Brij Bhasha, Braj Bhakha, or Dehaati Zabaan, is a Western Hindi language closely related to Hindustani. In fact, it is usually considered to be a dialect of Western Hindi, and along with Awadhi (a variety of Eastern Hindi) was one of the two predominant literary languages of North-Central India before the switch to Hindustani (Khariboli) in the 19th century. Braj Bhasha language, also spelled Braj Bhasa, Braj Bhakha, or Brij Bhasa, language descended from Shauraseni Prakrit and commonly viewed as a western dialect of Hindi. It is spoken by some 575,000 people, primarily in India. Its purest forms are spoken in the cities of Mathura, Agra, Etah, and Aligarh.

Most speakers of Braj Bhasha worship the Hindu deity Krishna. Their bhakti (“devotion”) finds expression in the language, which has a very firm base in folk literature and songs. Almost all of the enactments of episodes from Krishna’s life that are performed during the Janmashtami festival (celebrating Krishna’s birth) are presented in Braj Bhasha.

Mathura is located at 27.28°N 77.41°E.It has an average elevation of 174 metres (570 feet). The climate of Mathura is tropical extreme with very hot summers with temperatures rising beyond 44 °C, and cold and foggy winters with temperature dipping to 5 °C. The average rainfall is 593 mm, received mostly during the monsoons from July to September.

One of the major contributors in the economy of Uttar Pradesh are Mathura Industries.Mathura Refinery located in the city is one of the biggest oil refineries of Asia.This oil refinery of the Indian Oil Corporation is a highly technologically advanced oil refinery.Mathura Refinery is the first in Asia and third in the world to receive the coveted ISO-14001 certification for Environment Management System in 1996.

Textile printing industry that includes both sari-printing and fabric dyeing and silver ornaments manufacturing are major industrial contributors to the region.Apart from these other industries are water tap manufacturing units and other decorative and household items.Mathura also is a big centre for production of cotton materials;prominent among them being pure white bleached cotton sarees for women and dhotis for men,and cotton niwar tapes for beds. It is also a hub for production of milk based sweet meats,prominent among them being mathura Pedas and burfis. Renowned as the place where rivers of milk flowed, Mathura till today boasts of Milk trading centres where you can buy any amount of fresh milk where rates vary every few minutes and are notified on a black board akin to stock prices.

The ethos of Mathura, and in fact the whole of Braj mandal is centered on Krishna and his tales. Mathura sees heightened activities during the major festivities dedicated to Krishna.The residents or natives of Mathura are called Brijwasi. Mathura is famous for its sweets and Chaat.

Mathura is on the main lines of the Central Railways and is connected with all the important cities of Uttar Pradesh and India such as Delhi, Agra, Lucknow, Mumbai, Jaipur, Gwalior, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Chennai. The Nearest airport is Kheria (Agra), 62 km away from Mathura. Mathura is also well connected by motorable roads to important cities in the region.