Mayurbhanj district is one of the 30 districts in Odisha state in eastern India. it is fully autonomous district under fifth schedule of constitution of India. It is the largest district of Odisha by area. Baripada city is its headquarters. As of 2011, it is the third-most-populous district of Odisha (out of 30), after Ganjam and Cuttack.

Mayurbhanj is land-locked with a geographical area of 10,418 km2 (4,022 sq mi) and is in the northern boundary of the state. It is bounded in the northeast by Midnapure district of West Bengal, Singhbhum district of Jharkhand in the northwest, Baleshwar district in the southeast and by Kendujhar in the southwest. The district comprises four sub-divisions with 26 blocks with 382 Gram Panchayats and 3945 villages and it is the largest district of Odisha.

According to the 2011 census Mayurbhanj district has a population of 2,513,895,roughly equal to the nation of Kuwait or the US state of Nevada.This gives it a ranking of 171st in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 241 inhabitants per square kilometre (620/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 13.06%.Mayurbhanj has a sex ratio of 1006 females for every 1000 males and a literacy rate of 63.98%.

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Mayurbhanj one of the country’s 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).It is one of the 19 districts in Odisha currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).