Minerals are inorganic substances, which contain one or more elements. Rocks consist of minerals. It is a common believe that Himalaya as a whole are rich in mineral wealth. During the last eighty years or so, a number of geoscientists have been carrying out surveys and prospecting work in different parts of Garhwal hills and besides the metal ores which were already known to common people (Copper, Lead, Zinc, Silver, Gold, Iron ore etc.), a number of new minerals of utility have been located. The widening gap between the presence of minerals at a place and their local non-utilization due to various reasons is the greatest problem in developing the mineral industry in Garhwal hills.
Important minerals available for exploitation in the region are Limestone, Gold, Graphite, Sulphur etc. Lime is produced out of limestone, which is use for manufacturing of cement and in all constructional work. In the district, limestone deposits are in existence at Lansdown, Srinagar. Sulphur and Graphite has been found in Alaknanda valley near Srinagar. Hard coal has been found near Laldhang in the district. Along upper Shivalik hill reaches in the Kalachur region of Pauri Garhwal, a 60 km. long and two to five km. wide seam of Gold deposit has been found.
Geologically the Nayyar catchments comprise three main litho-tectonic units first as Almora crystalline in the north & northeastern parts covering parts of Thalisain, Bironkhal, Pabo and Pauri, second as Sedimentary belt of Jaunsar, Krol-Tal sequence in Rikhnikhal, Bironkhal and Jahrikhal blocks and third as Shivalik belt. From economic point of view, the Krol limestone is quarried for sugar industry, lime and some refractory. While a few pockets of gypsum are seen in the Krol Limestone. The Phyllites and slates are used as roof tiles and quartzites as building and road materials. A locality of lead and zinc mineralisation is seen in Bironkhal and Thalisain area. River Sand, gravels and bajri are used in building constructions. A few mica flakes are quite large in dimension with in the Almora crystalline and some times excavated by the local people.