Nabarangpur District, also known as Nabarangapur District and Nawarangpur District, is a district of Odisha, India. The city of Nabarangpur is the district headquarters. Most of its population is tribal, and most of the land is forested. Situated in the southwest corner of Odisha, it borders Koraput District. Nabarangpur district is situated at 19.14’ latitude and 82.32’ longitude at an average elevation of 1,876 feet (572 m).

The area of the district is 5294.5 km2. Its boundary stretches in the north to Kalahandi District, west to Jagdalpur District in Chhattisgarh, east to Kalahandi and Rayagada District and south to Koraput District. The river Indravati forms the border between Nabarangpur and Koraput districts. The district capital Nabarangpur is located on the plateau about 2,000 ft (610 m) above sea level. In the north, the Panabeda area, recently renamed as Chandahandi is only 500 ft (150 m) above sea level and experiences similar climate and social life to that of the adjacent Kalahandi District. The rest of Nabarangpur district is mainly flat with a few pockets of low hills. The highest peak Podagarh, which has historical significance, reaches 3,050 ft (930 m). There are patches of thick forest mostly containing sal seeds and those provide sustenance to dependent villages.

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Nabarangpur one of the country’s 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).It is one of the 19 districts in Odisha currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).

According to the 2011 census Nabarangpur district has a population of 1,218,762, roughly equal to the nation of Bahrain or the US state of New Hampshire.This gives it a ranking of 390th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 230 inhabitants per square kilometre (600/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 18.81%.Nabarangapur has a sex ratio of 1018 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 48.2%.

The major language spoken in this region is Odia. The inhabitants are mostly tribals. Rural people are now exposed to education and modern amenities. Encounter with the settled and urban population has changed their lifestyle to some extent but a few peoples including the Paraja, Kondhas and Gadava still live the indigenous lifestyle, relying on cultivation and forest products. These tribes speaks dialects of Odia.

The religion of the district is composite. There are Hindus, Christians and Muslims. The tribals worship the Hindu gods. The Muslims, a small proportion of the population, are believed to be the descendants of soldiers from Golkonda who settled in the area and married Paraja women. The Christians are the outcome of missionary activity. During the British Raj, British and American missionaries established boarding schools, dispensaries and churches. Adherents of various Protestant denominations and Catholics live in the area. The Christian hospital of Nabarangpur town has been an attraction for patients from far-flung areas.

The flora of Nabarangpur District is northern in character but has some affinity with southern India. Sal and bamboo are the two species commonly seen in the whole region. Paddy and maize cultivation has systematically depleted the green patches and upset the scenic beauty of the district. Still the reserved forests and the protected hills, afford some pleasure of living close to nature.

Among the wild animals there were the panther, leopard, tiger, hyena, jackal and wild dogs. Even the latter are now scarce due to human intrusion into their habitat. Wild Asian water buffalo, black bear, even gaur were found in the Umerkote region. The black bucks which were common in the Chandahandi area are nowhere seen now. Spotted deer, sambar and barking deer were a common sight in the district before Independence. Common crocodile are occasionally spotted in the Indravati River. Peafowl, red junglefowl and grey junglefowl are fairly often found, as are also the green pigeon and duck. However, there have been less in recent years.