Nadia

Nadia district is a district of the state of West Bengal, in eastern India. It borders Bangladesh to the east, North 24 Parganas and Hooghly districts to the south, Bardhaman to the west, and Murshidabad to the north.

Nabadwip♢, a town in Nadia district, is often referred to as “Oxford of Bengal”.Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (b.1486–d.1534) was born in Nabadwip. One of the Indian schools of logic (tarkashastra) called Navya Nyaya system was developed in Nabadwip, which produced great logicians in the 15th century Nabadwip was an important seat of political power in Bengal under Ballal Sen and later Lakshman Sen, kings of the Sena Empire, who ruled from 1159 to 1206.In 1202, Nabadwip was captured by Bakhtiyar Khilji. This victory paved the way for Muslim rule in Bengal.Nabadwip and some other places in Nadia were centres of learning and intellectual prowess. . It was the place where Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, a major Hindu saint, was born and lived. The religious atmosphere of Nabadwip is a combination of Vaishnava, Shakta, Buddhist, Shaiva. The main festival of Nabadwip is “Rash Utsab” (Rasa lila). It is also known as “Pat Purnima” or “Rash Kali Puja” or “Shakta Rash”. The varieties of Baishnaba, Shakta, Saiba Pratima (Idols) attracts every one.

Once the capital of Raja Bikramaditya and Maharaja Pratapaditya was at Dhumghat. Later it was transferred to Ishwaripur (Originated from the name Jeshoreshwaripur). Maharaja Pratapaditya declared independence of South Bengal (Jessore, Khulna in north, Sundarbans, Bay of Bengal in South, Barisal in east and River Ganges in west) against the Mughal Empire of India.

Jashoreshwari Kali Temple (built by Pratapaditya), Chanda Bhairab Mandir at Ishwaripur (a triangular temple, built during the Sena period), Five domed Tenga Mosque at Banshipur (Mughal period), two big and four small domed Hammankhana (constructed by Pratapaditya) at Bangshipur, Govinda Dev Temple at Gopalpur (built by Basanta Roy, uncle of Maharaja Pratapaditya in 1593), Jahajghata Port (Khanpur) are some historical structures in the district.

Among the Bengal zamindars Pratapaditya was the first to send his envoy to Islam Khan Chisti with a large gift to win the favour of the Mughals, and then tendered personal submission to the Subahdar (1609). He promised military assistance and personal service in the Mughal campaign against musa khan, a pledge that he did not keep. To punish Pratapaditya for his disloyalty as a vassal and to subjugate his territory, a large expedition was launched under the command of Ghiyas Khan, which soon reached a place named Salka, near the confluence of the Jamuna and Ichhamati (1611). Pratapaditya equipped a strong army and a fleet and placed them under expert officers including Feringis, Afghans and Pathans. His eldest son Udayaditya made a big fort at Salka with natural barriers on three sides rendering it almost impregnable. In battle the Jessore fleet gained an initial advantage. But the imperial army cut off the Jessore fleet, made a breach in its ranks and broke its unity and discipline. In the melee that followed, the admiral Khwaja Kamal was killed. Udayaditya lost heart and hastily fled to his father, narrowly escaping capture. Jamal Khan evacuated the fort and followed Udayaditya.

Pratapaditya prepared himself to fight a second time from a new base near the confluence of Kagarghat canal and the Jamuna. He made a big fort at a strategic point and gathered all his available forces there. The imperialists began the battle by an attack on the Jessore fleet (Jan 1612) and compelled it to seek shelter beneath the fort. But their further advance was checked by the heavy cannonade of the Jessore artillery. A sudden attack of the imperialists completely defeated the Jessore fleet and they fell upon the fort with the elephants in front, thereby compelling Pratapaditya to evacuate the fort and retreat.

The second defeat sealed the fate of Pratapaditya. At Kagarghat he tendered submission to Ghiyas Khan, who personally escorted Pratapaditya to Islam Khan at Dhaka. The Jessore king was put in chains and his kingdom was annexed. Pratapaditya was kept confined at Dhaka. No authentic information is available regarding his last days. Probably he died at Benares on his way to Delhi, as a prisoner.

According to the 2011 census Nadia district has a population of 5,168,488,roughly equal to the United Arab Emirates or the US state of Colorado.This gives it a ranking of 18th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 1,316 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,410/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 12.24%.Nadia has a sex ratio of 947 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 75.58%.