Nagaland is a mountainous state in northeast India, bordering Myanmar. It’s home to diverse indigenous tribes, with festivals and markets celebrating the different tribes’ culture. Its capital city of Kohima suffered heavy fighting in World War II, commemorated by memorials at the Kohima War Cemetery. The Nagaland State Museum exhibits ancient weaponry, a ceremonial drum and other traditional Naga cultural artifacts.
The Naga tribes had socio-economic and political links with tribes in Assam and Myanmar – even today a large population of Naga inhabits Assam. Following an invasion in 1816, the area along with Assam came under direct rule of Myanmar. This period was noted for the oppressive rule and turmoil in Assam and Nagaland. When the British East India Company took control of Assam in 1826, they steadily expanded their domain over modern Nagaland. By 1892, all of modern Nagaland except the Tuensang area in the northeast was governed by the British. It was politically amalgamated into Assam, which in turn was for long periods a part of the province of Bengal.
The British noted that the Naga tribes were often engaged in internecine warfare, and the practice of head-hunting – decapitating captives and civilians for religious ceremonies. The British stopped inter-tribal conflicts, and put an end to the practice of head-hunting by the use of force and diplomacy. But it was largely due to the work of Christian missionaries in the area that transformed Nagaland. Many Naga tribes embraced Christianity, in particular the Baptist faith. A small group of tribes continue to practice the animist religious traditions that existed before the arrival of the British. After the independence of India in 1947, the area remained a part of the province of Assam.In 1957, the Naga Hills district of Assam and the Tuensang frontier were united in a single political entity that became a Union territory. Statehood was officially granted in 1963 and the first state-level democratic elections were held in 1964.
The gayal (Bos frontalis), also known as mithun, is a large semi-domesticated bovine distributed in Northeast India, Bangladesh, northern Burma and in Yunnan, China.The gayal differs in several important particulars from the gaur. It is somewhat smaller, with proportionately shorter limbs, and stands much lower at the withers. The ridge on the back is less developed, and bulls have a larger dewlap on the throat. The head is shorter and broader, with a perfectly flat forehead and a straight line between the bases of the horns.
Blyth’s tragopan (Tragopan blythii) or the grey-bellied tragopan is a pheasant that is a vulnerable species. The common name commemorates Edward Blyth (1810–1873), English zoologist and Curator of the Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae. The genus comprises about 35 species of monoecious trees and shrubs, a few reaching a large size, distributed throughout the north temperate zone with a few species extending into Central America, as well as the northern and southern Andes.
Rhododendron is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout the Southern Highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America. It is the national flower of Nepal. Most species have showy flowers which bloom from late winter through to early summer. Azaleas make up two subgenera of Rhododendron. They are distinguished from “true” rhododendrons by having only five anthers per flower.
Dimapur airport, is 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from Dimapur, and 43.5 miles (70.0 km) from Kohima. It is the sole airport in Nagaland with scheduled commercial services to Kolkata, West Bengal and Dibrugarh, Assam. The airport’s asphalt runway is 7513 feet long, at an elevation of 487 feet.There are 680.1 miles (1,094.5 km) of state highways
The railway network in the state is minimal. Broad gauge lines run 7.98 miles (12.84 km), National Highway roads 227.0 miles (365.3 km), and state roads 680.1 miles (1,094.5 km). Road is the backbone of Nagaland’s transportation network. The state also has over 15,000 km of surfaced roads, but these are not satisfactorily maintained given the weather damage. In terms of population served for each kilometer of surfaced road, Nagaland is the second best state in the region after Arunachal Pradesh.
Naga cuisine, of the Naga people, features meats and fish, which are often smoked, dried or fermented . The various Naga tribes have their own cooking varieties, but they often interchange recipes. A typical Naga table consists of a meat dish, a boiled vegetable dish or two, rice and a chutney (Tathu). Nagas tend to prefer boiled edible organic leaves. Some common dishes are “fermented bamboo shoot” (made from the tender shoot of the Bamboo tree) with fish and pork. axone(soyabean boiled, fermented and either smoked or sun dried) with smoked pork and beef. Smoked meat is produced by keeping the meat above the fire or hanging on the wall of the kitchen for anywhere between 1 day to 2 weeks or longer, which could last for the whole year ahead. Anishiis fermented taro leaves made into patties and smoked over the fire or sun dried . Naga food tends to be spicy(chillies). There are different varieties of chillies in Nagaland. The ginger used in the Naga cuisine is spicy, aromatic and is different from the common ginger. The garlic and ginger leaves are also used in cooking with meat. Sichuan pepper is a popular spice used by the nagas.
Dance and Music
Nagaland is a vibrant hill state located in the extreme North Eastern End of India, bound by Myanmar in the East; Assam in the West; Arunachal Pradesh and a part of Assam in the North with Manipur in the south. It is renowned for its rich cultural heritage. The State is inhabited by 16 major tribes along with other sub-tribes. Each tribe is distinct in character in terms of customs, language and dress. It is a land of folklore passed down the generations through word of mouth. Here, music is an integral part of life.Music is also accompanied with the dance. Most of the dances are performed in groups. The most artistic dance of the state is the Zeliang dance. Strangely it is the monopoly of men, except in Zeliang tribe where women join with their men folk in dancing. Most of the dances are performed by clapping and chanting of some formulae. The beauty of the dances is raised by the colourful costumes. Dance is a very important part of life in rural Nagaland.
Art and Crafts
The art and craft forms of Mizoram occupy a very important sector of the industrial market of the state. The primary section of arts and crafts in the state is textiles, bamboo and cane works as well as basketry. The womenfolk of Mizoram are involved in weaving. Some of the traditional products include are puanspuon dum, puon pie, thangou puon, puon laisen, jawl puon, thangsuo puon, hmarm and zakuolaisen, bamboo and cane products like jewelry and jewelry. Basketry is also an important art and craft form practiced by the people of Mizoram. Mizoram, one of the North eastern states of India, consists of a lot of form of arts and crafts which is considered to be one of their crucial activities. The art and crafts also occupies a very important sector of the industrial market of the state. The primary section of arts and crafts in the state is textiles, bamboo and cane works as well as basketry.
The favourite costume of a Mizo woman is Puan. The vibrant colour and the outstanding designs made the costume such beautiful. Puanchei , the gorgeous dress of Mizo girls is a must during weddings and festivals such as ‘Chapchar Kut’ and ‘Pawl Kut ‘. The shades in the attire are black and white. The black portion of the textile is originated from some kind of synthetic fur.Mizo men believe in simplicity, when it comes about their traditional costume. They drape themselves in an almost 7 feet long and 5 wide cloth-piece. In cold season, some additional cloth is used, one on top of the other, along with a white coat, comes down from the throat enveloping till the thighs. White and red bands, stuffed with designs adorn the sleeves of these coats.