Nalanda district is one of the thirty-eight districts of the state of Bihar in India. Bihar Sharif is the administrative headquarters of this district.

Nalanda became a fully-fledged district when it was split from Patna in 1976.

Nalanda district occupies an area of 2,355 square kilometres (909 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to Canada’s Cornwall Island. The Phalgu, Mohane, Jirayan, and Kumbhari rivers flow through it. The district is a part of Patna Division.

According to the 2011 census Nalanda district has a population of 2,872,523, roughly equal to the nation of Jamaica or the US state of Kansas. This gives it a ranking of 134th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 1,220 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,200/sq mi) .Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 21.18 %. Nalanda has a sex ratio of 921 females for every 1000 males,and a literacy rate of 66.41 %.

A newly setup Ordnance Factory, one of the 41 Indian Ordnance Factories has been set up by the Ministry of Defence, Government of India to manufacture artillery shells at Nalanda. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Nalanda one of the country’s 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).

In 1978 Nalanda district became home to the Rajgir Wildlife Sanctuary, which has an area of 36 km2 (13.9 sq mi).

Nalanda district is fast developing and the ruins of the ancient Nalanda University attracts tourists from all over world driving the local economy.