Nawada district is one of the thirty-eight districts of the Indian state of Bihar. Nawada is its administrative headquarters. The district is the westernmost district of the Magadh division, one of the nine administrative divisions of Bihar. The area of the modern district was historically part of the Magadha, Shunga and Gupta empires. Koderma and Giridih districts of the state of Jharkhand lie on the southern border of the district; it also shares borders with the Gaya, Nalanda, Sheikhpura, and Jamui districts of Bihar.

Nawada district occupies an area of 2,494 square kilometres (963 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to Chile’s Navarino Island.Most parts of the district are plain but some areas are hilly. The main rivers are the Sakri, Khuri, Panchane, Bhusri by Kakolat, Tilaiya, and Dhanarjay.Kakolat Falls are mentioned in Hindu mythology as the abode of a king turned into a python by a Rishi’s curse

The main crops harvested in the district are paddy, wheat, pulses, and other vegetables. Industrial facilities in the district include bidi factories and silk handlooms. Formerly, sugar cane farming and processing also took place; the district’s single sugar mill, located in Warisaliganj, is currently non-functional. Kadirganj, located 6 km from Nawada, has a silk small scale industry where workers clean and weave silk.

Rajauli and Sirdala are emerging as significant market hubs for the hinterland regions bordering Jharkhand state, and have also produced many professionals including physicians, surgeons, engineers who are working in many parts of India. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India identified Rajauli as the possible site for creating an additional 2,000-mW of nuclear power capacity in the state.

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Nawada one of the country’s 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 38 districts in Bihar currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF)

National Highway 31 runs roughly north-south through the western side of district, serving many villages and towns, including the administrative center of Nawada. National Highway 82 follows a 30 km route in the far northwestern corner of the district, passing through the town of Hisua. Including state highways and other routes connecting villages, the district has approximately 420 km of paved roads. Deluxe buses are available from Nawada to major cities, including Patna, at every half an hour.

The district lies in the East Central Railway of Indian Railways; the Gaya–Kiul line crosses the district roughly east-west, and connects with the Bakhtiyarpur–Tilaiya line at Tilaiya Junction. Two express trains and several local trains run on the Gaya-Kiul line via Nawadah station.