Neemuch or Nimach is a town in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The town shares its northeastern border with state of Rajasthan and is the administrative headquarters of Neemuch District. Formerly a large British cantonment of Gwalior princely state, in 1822 the town became the headquarters of the combined Rajputana–Malwa political agency and of the Malwa Agency in 1895. The British Cantonment was disbanded in 1932 after which it was maintained by a British Municipal Board. Neemuch was the birthplace of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) in 1939 and is home to a large scale army recruitment centre for the organisation. The CRPF still maintains part of Neemuch’s British Military Cantonment, which was the first of its kind in India. The bungalow area, native troops area, bazar area and fields and gardens were maintained initially by the municipal board and later by the Municipal Council. After independence Neemuch City and the Baghana area were included in the municipal area. Neemuch is known as India’s Eye donation capital as it accounts for the highest per capita eye donation rate in the country’. Neemuch also has Asia’s biggest opium alkaloid processing plant which is a government-owned company named- Opium and Alkaloid Works. It is a road junction and distribution centre for agricultural products. Handloom weaving is the major industry here.

A number of myths surround the name Neemuch. One is that the city received its name because of the large number of neem trees found here while originality is that first people of this city were of the Meena caste, leading to the name “Meenuch”, which over time became Neemuch. A further theory is that “Nimach” is an abbreviation of “North India Mounted Artillery and Cavalry Headquarters”

The city was the location of a palace in the district of the Ajmer. Originally a part of the territory of Malwa, it was given to the Rana in 1768 to pay off debts incurred by the rana (king) of Mewar. After that it became a British cantonment of the Gwalior princely state, except for short periods in 1794 and 1844 and 1965. The Neemuch cantonment played a significant role in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and was the centre of disturbances in Malwa.

In 1857, Neemuch was the most southerly place to which the Rebellion extended. A brigade of native Bengal troops were stationed at Neemuch, then mutinied and marched to Delhi. European officers took refuge in the fort, and were later besieged by a rebel force from Mandasor. The europeans defended the city until relieved by the Malwa field force. Since 1895 Neemuch has been the headquarters of the political agent in Malwa, a subdivision of the British Central India Agency.

Neemuch district is part of the Ujjain Division. It borders Rajasthan to the west and north and Mandsaur district to the east and south. It was split from Mandsaur District on 30 June 1998.

The city is divided into three main parts: Neemuch city, Chhavani, and Baghana.

Chhavani is the main commercial area hosting Pustak bazar, Dusshera maidan, Satya Path, Tilak Marg, Budha Gopal Street, Bohra gali, Rabindranath Tagore Marg and Sabji market, bus stand, timber market, Ambedkar Road and Nasirabad – Mhow National highway no. 56 and Neemuch – Bhopal State Highway no. 87. Baghana is widely known for its ‘Anaj Mandi’.

The Neemuch district has approximately 9,56,000 inhabitants as of 2001.

Neemuch district comes under Agroclimatic zone Malva Plateau, lies between the parallels of latitude 24°15’ – 24°35’ North, and between the meridians of longitude 74°45’ – 75°37’ East spread over an area of 3875 square kilometres. It has surrounding of Kota, Jhalawar, Chittaurgarh and Pratapgarh District of Rajasthan State while Mandsaur District of Madhya Pradesh.

Due to location of Neemuch City in Malwa region. the climate is pleasant & the Nights are more pleasant. The highest maximum temperature of 46° reaches in May & June & remains up to last week of June. In winters, the minimum temperature reaches 2 °C in month of December & January. The average rainfall of Neemuch City is 812 mm and maximum rainfall occurs in month of July & August. The lowest rainfall of 501.6mm was recorded in 2007 where as maximum rainfall of 1352 mm occurred in 2006. The reason for drop rainfall in 2007 was due to the drought condition in the District. Wind direction is from south — West to North in April to September months and in the remaining months of the year it is north — east direction to south west direction. Wind speed is low in two months of the year