- > Blackbuck, Andhra Pradesh
- > Gayal, Arunachal Pradesh
- > One-horned rhino, Assam
- > Gaur, Bihar
- > Wild buffalo, Chattisgarh
- > Asiatic lion, Gujarat
- > Snow leopard, Himachal Pradesh
- > Indian elephant, Jharkhand
- > Indian giant squirrel, Maharashtra
- > Hoolock gibbon, Mizoram
- > Red panda, Sikkim
- > Nilgiri tahr, Tamil Nadu
- > Spotted deer, Telangana
- > Phayre’s langur, Tripura
- > Fishing cat, West Bengal
The mammal that belongs to the family of Rhinocerotidae is named as Indian one-horned rhinoceros, greater one-horned rhinoceros or Indian rhinoceros. The species that is considered most susceptible is majorly found in the Assam a state in north-eastern India.
There were times when these species were extensively visible in the Indo-Gigantic Plain but due to extreme hunting of these species they have been on the verge of diminishing at the current time. The current count of these species is around 3000 in number out of which 2000 of them are in Assam itself.
Among the existing earthly mammals that are found in Asia, the one-horned Rhinoceros are ranked after the Asian elephants in size. Also they are considered the second prevalent species of rhinoceros after White rhinoceros that exist. The characteristics of the male rhinoceros is that their length varies from 368 to 380 cm and the height varying between 163 to 193 cm while the characteristics of female are 310 to 340 cm of length and height between 147 to 173 cm. The average weight of male and female rhinoceros is 2100 and 1600 kg respectively. Their skull id considered to be very heavy. The basal length and occiput is almost 60 cm and 19 cm respectively.
The maximum weight of the any specific species can be up to 4000 kg.
Both the male and female species of rhino have a single horn present but this is not present in the young and newly born rhinoceros. The growth of the horn starts after the 6 years growth of rhinoceros and is like a horny tissue of the hair that is black in color. The average size of the horn goes up to 25 cm while the maximum recorded length on the horn is 57.2 cm.
The skin color of this mammal is silver-brown and is very thick. The color changes to pinkish at the area where the skin gets folded in larger patch. The upper legs and the shoulders are bumpy. The hair on the body of rhinoceros is very less in number. The maximum hair is on eyelashes, tail-brush and the ear-edge. There are dense neck-folds in the male species.
The rhinos are the unsociable species that is they don’t easily gets involved around other creatures. The only time they can be seen together is in the relation of a mother and calves and the pairs of rhino while breeding. They can also be seen gathering in the bathing areas at few times. It is believed that many male species of rhino doesn’t allow other male species enter their terrain; the only time that they permit is at time of mating session. The time when they are most active is during night and early morning. During the daytime they can be seen near water areas like lakes, rivers or ponds to feel cool. Their swimming skill is very good.
The range where these mammals are extensively found is in the vicinity of Indus, Brahmaputra and Ganges. The most preferable area is Terai alluvial plain grassland and the basin of Brahmaputra. Due to the devastation of habitat and the changes that occurred in the climate these species are on verge of extinction in many areas. By 19th century these species were only visible in the areas of Terai grasslands, northern part of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Bengal, Assam’s Brahmaputra valley.
The other species with which the rhinos have enmity are tigers that at times eat the unwary calves but the adult rhinos are defenseless because of their large size. Rhinos have wishy-washy on their skin and the feet and the Mynahs and egrets eat these from the rhino’s skin.
The speed at which the rhinos can run is at 55km/h but for a small time and they are exceptional swimmers. The poor eye-sight and high smelling and hearing are the other characteristics of these mammals.
One-horned Indian rhinoceros were the first of their kind that were famous. The first one to view the species of Rhinoceros in the year 1683 was the British public. Since the one-horned rhinoceros have been the official state animal, the Assam Oil Company Ltd has made rhino as their official logo.