Palamau is one of the twenty-four districts of Jharkhand state, India. It was formed in 1892.The administrative headquarter is Daltonganj, situated on koel river.

The district lies between 23°50′ and 24°8′ north latitude and between 83°55′ and 84°30′ east longitude. It is bordered on the north by Sone River & Bihar and on the east by the Chatra and Hazaribagh districts, on the south by Latehar District and on the west by Garhwa District.

The district covers an area of 5043.8 km² and has a population of 1,533,176. Daltonganj, situated on the North Koel river is the district headquarters.

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Palamu one of the country’s 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).It is one of the 24 districts in Jharkhand currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).

According to the 2011 census Palamu district has a population of 24,36,319,roughly equal to the nation of Lesotho or the US state of West Virginia.This gives it a ranking of 243rd in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 381 inhabitants per square kilometre (990/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 25.94%. Palamu has a sex ratio of 929 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 65.5%.

The only university in Medininagar (Daltonganj) is Nilamber-Pitamber University, created on the 17th of January, 2009.The Chief Minister of Jharkhand declared that the Nilamber-Pitamber University would be set up in Medininagar (Daltonganj) in 2001.There are 66 primary schools, 30 middle schools, 17 Navsirijit schools, 10 high schools and 1 Engineering College in the Daltonganj block.

World’s first tiger-census was done in the Palamau forests in the year 1932. Counting was based on pugmarks. There were around 44 tigers when the last census was done. There are several other wildlife found in the sanctuary — chital, chinkara, common langur, dhole (wild dogs), elephants, gaur, hares, Indian porcupine, nilgai, monkey, mouse deer, leopard, pangolin, panther, sambar (deer), sloth bear, wild boar and wolves. Peafowl, red junglefowl and partridges are the common birds found here.