Rupnagar district is one of the twenty districts in the state of Punjab in North-West Republic of India. The town of Rupnagar (formerly known as Rupar or Ropar) is said to have been founded by a Raja called Rokeshar, who ruled during the 11th century and named it after his son Rup Sen. It is also the site of an ancient town of the Indus Valley Civilization. The major cities in Ropar District are Morinda, Nangal, Kurali, Anandpur Sahib. Morinda is also known as Baghawala “The City of Gardens.” Morinda is located at Chandigarh-Ludhiana Highway.
Rupar is a 21 metre high ancient mound overlaying the Shiwalik (also spelt as Sivalik or Shivalik) deposition on the left bank of the river Sutlej where it emerges into the lains. It has yielded a sequence of six cultural periods or phases with some breaks from the Harappan times to the present day. The excavations were carried out by Dr. Y.D. Sharma of Archaeological Survey of India. The migration of the Harappans to Rupar has been postulated through the lost Saraswati River to the Sutlej as both rivers once belonged to one system.
Rupnagar district, included in the Patiala Division of Punjab falls between north latitude 30°-32′ and 31°-24′ and east longitude 76°-18′ and 76°-55′. Rupnagar (formerly known as Ropar) town, the district headquarters is 42 km from Chandigarh, the state capital. The district adjoins Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (formerly known as Nawanshahar), Mohali and Fatehgarh Sahib Districts of Punjab. The district comprises 4 Tehsils, Rupnagar, Anandpur Sahib, Chamkaur Sahib and Nangal and includes 617 villages and 6 towns namely Rupnagar, Chamkaur Sahib, Anandpur sahib, Morinda, Kiratpur Sahib and Nangal. All the towns except Chamkaur sahib fall on railways line. The Satluj river passes close (2 to 5 km) to the towns of Nangal, Rupnagar and Anandpur Sahib.
Rupnagar district, included in the Rupnagar Division of Punjab falls between north latitude 30°-32′ and 31°-24′ and east longitude 76°-18′ and 76°-55′. Rupnagar (formerly known as Ropar) town, the district headquarters is 42 km from Chandigarh, the state capital. The district adjoins Nawanshahar, Mohali and Fatehgarh Sahib Districts of Punjab. The district comprises four Tehsils, Rupnagar,Anandpur Sahib,Chamkaur Sahib and Nangal and includes 617 villages and 6 towns: Rupnagar, Chamkaur Sahib, Anandpur Sahib, Morinda, Kiratpur Sahib and Nangal. All the towns except Chamkaur Sahib have railway connections. The Satluj river passes close to the towns of Nangal, Rupnagar and Anandpur Sahib.
The climate of Rupnagar District is characterized by its general dryness (except in the south-west monsoon season), a hot summer and a bracing cold winter. The year may be divided into four seasons. The period from about middle of November to February is the cold season. This is followed by the summer season from March to about the end of June. The south-west monsoon season commences late in June and continues up to about middle of September. The period from mid September to the middle of November constitute the post-monsoon or transition season. The temperature ranges from minimum of 4 °C in winter to 45 °C in summer. May and June are generally hottest months and December and January are the coldest months. Relative humidity is high, averaging about 70 percent during monsoon. The average annual rainfall in district is 775.6 mm. About 78 percent of the annual rainfall is received during the period from June to September. The soils of the District vary in texture generally from loam to silty clay loam except along the Sutlej River and chos where some sandy patches may be found. Chamkaur Sahib and Kharar blocks have sodic soils. The soils of Anandpur Sahib and Rupnagar blocks are undulating.
According to the 2011 census Rupnagar district has a population of 683,349, roughly equal to the nation of Equatorial Guinea or the US state of North Dakota.This gives it a ranking of 507th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 488 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,260/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 8.67%.Rupnagar has a sex ratio of 913 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 83.3%.