Sagar is a city in the state of Madhya Pradesh in central India. Situated on a spur of the Vindhya Range and 1,758 feet (536 m) above sea-level. The city is around 180 kilometres (110 mi) northeast of state capital, Bhopal. Its original name ‘Saugor’ is an amalgamation of two words: sau meaning 100 and gahr meaning forts; there were countless small-forts in this region. With time the name has changed from ‘Saugor’ to ‘Sagar’.

Sagar has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi’s flagship Smart Cities Mission.

The ancient Indian kingdom of Chedi had its capital as “Suktimati”, which is located in Sagar in contemporary times. History of Sagar District was not known before 1022 A.D., after that all the records are available.Firstly, Sagar was under the rule of Ahir Rajas and their capital was at “Garhpehra”. in 1660 A.D. Udenshah founded the present Sagar Town. Sagar owes its importance to having been made the capital of the Maratha governor Govind Pant Bundele who established himself here in 1735. By a treaty concluded with the Maratha Peshwa in 1818, at the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the greater part of the present district was made over to the British. The town became the capital of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories, then attached to the North-Western Provinces.

Sagar has humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa) with hot summers, a somewhat cooler monsoon season and cool winters. Very heavy rain falls in the monsoon season from June to September.

As of the 2011 India census, Sagar had a population of 2,378,458of which male and female were 1,256,257 and 1,122,201 respectively. In 2001 census, Sagar had a population of 2,021,987 of which males were 1,073,205 and remaining 948,782 were females. Average literacy rate of Sagar in 2011 were 76.46 compared to 67.73 of 2001. If things are looked out at gender wise, male and female literacy were 84.85 and 67.02 respectively. For 2001 census, same figures stood at 79.41 and 54.35 in Sagar District. Total literate in Sagar District were 1,545,719 of which male and female were 908,607 and 637,112 respectively. In 2001, Sagar District had 1,118,993 literates in its district.