Seraikela-Kharsawan district formerly the Princely State of Seraikella/Saraikella is one of the twenty-four districts of Jharkhand state in eastern India. Seraikela town is the district headquarters of Saraikela Kharsawan district . The district is well known for Seraikela Chhau, one of the three distinctive styles of the chhau dance. This district was carved out from West Singhbhum district in 2001.

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Seraikela Kharsawan one of the country’s 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).It is one of the 21 districts in Jharkhand currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).

According to the 2011 census Seraikela Kharsawan district has a population of 1,063,458,roughly equal to the nation of Cyprus or the US state of Rhode Island.This gives it a ranking of 428th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 390 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,000/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 25.28%.Saraikela Kharsawan has a sex ratio of 958 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 68.85%.