Sonipat district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. Sonipat town is the district headquarters. It is a part of National Capital Region along with Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad.
The district borders Delhi union territory in south, Panipat District in the north, Jind District in the north-west, Uttar Pradesh state in the east with the Yamuna River acting as a border and Rohtak District in the west.
The district is named after its administrative headquarters, Sonipat. Sonipat was earlier known as Sonprastha, which later became Svarnaprastha (Golden City), which is derived from two Sanskrit words, Svarna (Gold) and Prastha (Place). Over a period of time, the classical name Svarnprastha’s pronunciation degraded into Svarnpat, and then to its current form, Sonipat. The earliest reference of this city comes in the epic Mahabharata, and at that time, it was one of the five villages demanded by the Pandavas in lieu of the kingdom of Hastinapur.
This district was carved out of the erstwhile Rohtak district on 22 December 1972.
Broadly speaking, the entire district is a part of the Punjab plain, but the area is not level in some parts. Over most of the district, the soil is fine loam of rich colour. However, some areas have sandy soil and others Kallar. The plain has a gradual slope to the south and east. The district may be roughly divided into three regions: The Khadar, the upland plain and the sandy region.
The district is one of the major education hubs in North India. Apart from a number of schools and colleges, the district is home to three universities. Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology in Murthal was founded in 1987, Bhagat Phool Singh Mahila Vishwavidyalaya in Sonipat was founded in 2006 and O P Jindal Global University near Rathdhana was founded in 2009. Recently in 2012, a national institute [National Institute of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship & Management], NIFTEM, a world class institute was founded in Kundli which falls near Delhi border.
Sonepat (Sonipat) Railway Station is located on the Northern Railways’ Ambala-Delhi rail route and a number of passenger trains daily passes through it. National Highway 1 and National Highway 71A pass through this district.
According to the 2011 census Sonipat district has a population of 1,480,080, roughly equal to the nation of Gabon or the US state of Hawaii.This gives it a ranking of 338th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 697 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,810/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 15.71%.Sonipat has a sex ratio of 853 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 80.8%.