TamilNadu1
TamilNadu3

Tamil Nadu literally The Land of Tamils or Tamil Country) is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai (formerly known as Madras). Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. It also shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka.

Tamilnadu

The region of Tamil Nadu in modern India has been reported to have continuous human habitation from 15,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE.Throughout its history, spanning the early Upper Paleolithic age to modern times, this region has coexisted with various external cultures. Except for relatively short periods in its history, the Tamil region has remained independent of external occupation.The three ancient Tamil empires of Chera, Chola, and Pandya were of ancient origins. Together they ruled over this land with a unique culture and language, contributing to the growth of some of the oldest extant literature in the world. They had extensive maritime trade contacts with the Roman empire. These three dynasties were in constant struggle with each other vying for hegemony over the land. Invasion by the Kalabhras is said to be during the 3rd century disturbed the traditional order of the land by displacing the three ruling kingdoms. These occupiers were overthrown by the resurgence of the Pandyas and the Pallavas, who restored the traditional kingdoms. The Cholas, who re-emerged from obscurity in the 9th century by defeating the Pallavas and the Pandyas, rose to become a great power and extended their empire over the entire southern peninsula. At its height the Chola empire spanned almost 3,600,000 km² (1,389,968 sq mi) straddling the Bay of Bengal. The Chola navy held sway over the Sri Vijaya kingdom in Southeast Asia.Rapid changes in the political situation of the rest of India occurred due to incursions of Muslim armies from the northwest and the decline of the three ancient dynasties during the 14th century, the Tamil country became part of the Vijayanagara Empire. Under this empire, the Telugu speaking Nayak governors ruled before the European trading companies appeared during the 17th century eventually assuming greater sway over the indigenous rulers of the land. The Madras Presidency, comprising most of southern India, was created in the 18th century and was ruled directly by the British. After the independence of India, after the Telugu, Kannada, Tulu and Malayalam parts of Madras state were separated from Madras state in 1956, it was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1969 by the state government.

Tamilnadu_02

Nilgiri tahr

The Nilgiri tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius) known locally as the Nilgiri ibex or simply ibex, is an ungulate that is endemic to the Nilgiri Hills and the southern portion of the Western Ghats in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in southern India. It is the state animal of Tamil Nadu.Despite its local name, it is more closely related to the sheep of the Ovis genus than the ibex and wild goats of the Capra genus.

Common emerald dove

The common emerald dove (Chalcophaps indica) is a pigeon which is a widespread resident breeding bird in the tropical and sub-tropical parts of the Indian Subcontinent and east through Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, the Sakishima Islands of Japan and Indonesia, to northern and eastern Australia. The dove is also known by the names of green dove and green-winged pigeon. The common emerald dove is the state bird of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Tamilnadu_01
Tamilnadu_04

Borassus

Borassus (Palmyra palm) is a genus of five species of fan palms, native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia and New Guinea. These massive palms can grow up to 30 m high (98 ft) and have robust trunks with distinct leaf scars; in some species the trunk develops a distinct swelling just below the crown, though for unknown reasons. The leaves are fan-shaped, 2–3 m long and with spines along the petiole margins (no spines in B. heineanus). The leaf sheath has a distinct cleft at its base, through which the inflorescences appear; old leaf sheaths are retained on the trunk, but fall away with time. All Borassus palms are dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants; male flowers are less than 1 cm long and in semi-circular clusters, sandwiched between leathery bracts in pendulous catkins; female flowers are 3–5 cm wide, globe-shaped and solitary, sitting directly on the surface of the inflorescence axis.

Gloriosa

Gloriosa is a genus of 12 species in the plant family Colchicaceae, and include the formerly recognised genus Littonia. They are native in tropical and southern Africa to Asia, and naturalised in Australia and the Pacific as well as being widely cultivated.The most common English names are flame lily, fire lily, gloriosa lily, glory lily, superb lily, climbing lily, and creeping lily.

Tamilnadu_03

Tamil Nadu has four international airports namely Chennai International Airport, Coimbatore International Airport, Tiruchirapalli International Airport and Madurai International Airport. Salem Airport and Tuticorin Airport are domestic airports. Chennai International Airport is a major international airport and aviation hub in South Asia. Besides civilian airports, the state has four air bases of the Indian Air Force namely Thanjavur AFS, Tambram AFS, Coimbatore AFS and Madurai AFS and two naval air stations INS Rajali and INS Parundu of Indian Navy.Tamil Nadu has three major seaports located at Chennai, Ennore and Tuticorin, as well as seven other minor ports including Cuddalore and Nagapattinam.Chennai Port is an artificial harbour situated on the Coromandel Coast and is the second principal port in the country for handling containers. Ennore Port handles all the coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu. The volume of cargo in the ports grew by 13 per cent during 2005.Tamil Nadu has a transportation system that connects all parts of the state. Tamil Nadu is served by an extensive road network, providing links between urban centres, agricultural market-places and rural areas. There are 29 national highways in the state, covering a total distance of 5,006.14 km (3,110.67 mi).[168][169] The state is also a terminus for the Golden Quadrilateral project, that connects four major metropolitan cities in India (Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata).

The state has a total road length of 167,000 km (104,000 mi), of which 60,628 km (37,672 mi) are maintained by Highways Department. This is nearly 2.5 times higher than the density of all-India road network.The major road junctions are Chennai, Vellore, Madurai, Trichy, Coimbatore, Salem, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin, Karur, Krishnagiri, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari. Road transport is provided by state owned Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation and State Express Transport Corporation. Almost every part of state is well connected by buses 24 hours a day. The State accounted for 13.6 per cent of all accidents in the country With 66,238 accidents in 2013, 11.3 per cent of all road accident deaths and 15 per cent of all road-related injuries, according to data provided by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. Although Tamil Nadu accounts for the highest number of road accidents in India, it also leads in having reduced the number of fatalities in accident-prone areas with deployment of personnel and a sustained awareness campaign. The number of deaths at areas decreased from 1,053 in 2011 to 881 in 2012 and 867 in 2013.Tamil Nadu has a well-developed rail network as part of Southern Railway. Headquartered at Chennai, the Southern Railway network extends over a large area of India’s southern peninsula, covering the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, a small portion of Karnataka and a small portion of Andhra Pradesh. Express trains connect the state capital Chennai with Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkatta. Chennai Central is gateway for train towards north whereas Chennai Egmore serves as gateway for south. Tamil Nadu has a total railway track length of 5,952 km (3,698 mi) and there are 532 railway stations in the state. The network connects the state with most major cities in India. The Nilgiri Mountain Railway is one of the UNESCO World Heritage Site connecting Ooty on the hills and Mettupalayam in the foot hills which is in turn connected to Coimbatore city. The centenary old Pamban Bridge over sea connecting Rameswaram in Pamban island to mainland is an engineering marvel. It is one of the oldest cantilever bridges still in operation, the double-leaf bascule bridge section can be raised to let boats and small ships pass through Palk Strait in Indian Ocean. Chennai has a well-established suburban railway network and is constructing a Chennai Metro with phase1 operational since July 2015 . Major railway junctions( 4 & above lines ) in the state are Chennai, Coimbatore, Katpadi, Madurai, Salem, Erode, Dindigul, Karur, Nagercoil, Tiruchirapalli and Tirunelveli. Chennai Central, Madurai Junction, Katpadi Junction, Chennai Egmore, Salem Junction, Tiruchirappalli Junction, Coimbatore Junction are upgraded to A1 grade level. Loco sheds are located at Erode, Arakkonam, Royapuram in Chennai and Tondaiyarpet in Chennai, Ponmalai (GOC) in Tiruchirappalli as Diesel Loco Shed. The loco shed at Erode is a huge composite Electric and Diesel Loco shed. MRTS which covers from Chennai Beach to Velachery,and metro rail also running between Alandur and koyambedu station.

Tamil-nadu2

Cuisine

Tamil cuisine is typical of south Indian cuisine, in that rice and rice-derived dishes form the major portion of a diet.There are regional sub-varieties namely Chettinadu, Kongunadu, Nanjilnadu, Madurai, Tirunelveli varieties etc. Traditionally, food is served on a banana leaf instead of a plate and eaten with the right hand. The world famous idly-dosai-sambar-vadai is a symbol and as well as an identity for the modern day Tamil cuisine.Rice is the staple food of Tamils and is typically eaten mixed with sambhar (with or without ghee), vegetarian or non-vegetarian kulambu, rasam, curd and buttermilk. This is accompanied with various vegetarian and/or non-vegetarian dishes like kootu, aviyal, poriyal, thuvayal, chutni, karaisal, kothsu, avial, varuval, peratal, appalam, vadakam, vatral, varieties of pickles, uppukandam, urukaai and chicken, mutton, or fish fry.

Literature

Tamil written literature has existed for over 2000 years.The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from ca. 300 BC – AD 300.It is the oldest Indian literature amongst all others.The earliest epigraphic records found on rock edicts and hero stones date from around the 3rd century BC.Most early Tamil literary works are in verse form, with prose not becoming more common until later periods. The Sangam literature collection contains 2381 poems composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom remain anonymous.Sangam literature is primarily secular, dealing with everyday themes in a Tamilakam context.The Sangam literature also deals with human relationship and emotions.The available literature from this period was categorized and compiled in the 10th century into two categories based roughly on chronology. The categories are: Pathinenmaelkanakku comprising Eṭṭuttokai and the Pattupattu and Pathinenkilkanakku.

Tamil-nadu6
Tamil-nadu5

Music

The kings of ancient Thamizhagam created sangams for Iyal Isai Nadagam (Literature, Music and Drama). Music played a major role in sangams. Music in Tamil Nadu had different forms. In villages where farming was the primary occupation, women who worked in the fields used to sing kulavai songs. Odhuvars, Sthanikars or Kattalaiyars offer short musical programmes in the temples by singing the devotional Thevaram songs. In sharp contrast with the restrained and intellectual nature of Carnatic music, Tamil folk music tends to be much more exuberant. Popular forms of Tamil folk music include the Villuppāṭṭu, a form of music performed with a bow,the urumee mellam or Naiyandi mellam which incorporates the use of the urumee and the Nāṭṭuppur̲appāṭṭu, ballads that convey folklore and folk history.

Arts and dance

Tamils have a large number of folk dances. These are performed for every possible occasion, to celebrate the arrival of seasons, birth of a child, weddings and festivals. Tamil dance is closely intertwined with the Tamil theatrical tradition.The most celebrated of these dances is the karakattam. In its religious form, the dance is performed in front of an image of the goddess Mariamman. The dancer bears on his or her head a brass pot filled with uncooked rice, decorated with flowers and surrounded by a bamboo frame, and tumbles and leaps to the rhythm of a song without spilling a grain. Karakattam is usually performed to a special type of song known as temmanguppāṭṭu a folk song in the mode of a lover speaking to his beloved, to the accompaniment of a nadaswaram and melam.

Tamil-nadu3
Tamil-nadu1

Film industry

Tamil Nadu is also home to the Tamil film industry also known as “Kollywood”, which released the most number of films in India in 2013.The term Kollywood is a portmanteau of Kodambakkam and Hollywood.Tamil cinema is one of the largest centres of film production in India.In Tamil Nadu, cinema ticket prices are regulated by the government. Single screen theaters may charge a maximum of ₹50, while theaters with more than three screens may charge a maximum of ₹120 per ticket.The first silent film in Tamil Keechaka Vadham, was made in 1916.The first talkie was a multi-lingual, Kalidas, which released on 31 October 1931, barely 7 months after India’s first talking picture Alam Ara Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South India in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of “Tent Cinema” in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films. The first of its kind was established in Madras, called “Edison’s Grand Cinemamegaphone”. This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors.

Television industry

There are more than 30 television channels of various genre in Tamil. DD Podhigai, Doordarshan’s Tamil language regional channel was launched on April 14, 1993.The first private Tamil channel, Sun TV was founded in 1993 by Kalanidhi Maran. In Tamil Nadu, the television industry is influenced by politics and majority of the channels are owned by politicians or people with political links.The government of Tamil Nadu distributed free televisions to families in 2006 at an estimated cost ₹3.6 billion (US$53 million) of which has led to high penetration of TV services.Cable used to be the preferred mode of reaching homes controlled by government run operator Arasu Cable.

Tamil-nadu4